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JUNE, 1902. 



Number I. ^ 



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QUARTERLY 
BULLETIN 

OF 

THE NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 
DENTAL SCHOOL 

CORNER DEARBORN AND LAKE STREETS 

CHICAGO 






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CIRCULAR OF 
INFORiMATION 






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Session of 1 902-1 903 begins October i, 1902. /^ 

Last day on which Students may enter this session and receive /t\ 

credit for full term's attend- ^ 
ance, October nth, 1902. 



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^^ r^^ Bulletin of Northivesiern Uni'versity Denial School is published 

y^M quarterly by North-western University, Entered at the postoffice at 
^Wk Chicago as second- class mail matter. 



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ANNOUNCEMENTS 



1902 

Sept. 29 to Oct. 10 Examination of Credentials for Admission 
October i Op'ng Exercises at 7:30 p.m. Wednesday 

October i to 15 Examination for Advanced Standing 
November 27 Thanksgiving 

December 20 Christmas vacation begins 



1903 
January 6 
January 19 
January 19 to 26 
January 26 
April 13 to i^ 
April 20 to 28 
April 30 
October i 



Christmas vacation closed 

First Semester ends 

Mid-term examinations 

Second Semester begins 

Senior examinations 

Junior and Freshman examinations 

Commencement 

Session of 1903-1904 begins 



Not e.'^Rttxxrn Tickets for students going home for Christmas 
vacation will be given out only on December 20 



Northwestern University 



President, Edmund Janes James, A.M., Ph.D. LL.D. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

OFFICERS. 

William Deering President. 

Hon. Oliver Harvey Horton, LL.D., First Vice-President. 

Hon. H. H. C. Miller, A.M Second Vice-President. 

Frank Philip Crandon, A.M Secretary. 

Robert D. Sheppard, A.M., D.D., Treasurer and Business Manager. 



TRUSTEES. 



term expires in 1902. 

Edmund Andrews, M.D., LL.D Chicago. 

Nathan Smith Davis, M.D., LL.D Chicago. 

Henry Sargent Towle, LL.B Chicago. 

Harlow Niles Higinbotham Chicago. 

John Balderston Kirk Evanston. 

J. Frank Robinson, A.M Rock Island. 

Burns Durbin Caldwell New York City. 

Charles Bowen Congdon Evanston. 

James Henry Raymond, A.M Evanston. 

TERM expires IN I9O3. 

Hon. Oliver Harvey Horton, LL.D Chicago. 

William Deering Evanston. 

Merritt Caldwell Bragdon, A.M., M.D Evanston. 

Mary Raymond Shum way Evanston. 

William Alden Fuller Chicago. 

James Bartlett Hobbs Chicago. 

Frank Philip Crandon, A.M Evanston. 

Hon. Lorin Cone Collins, A.M Chicago. 

Hon. William Andrew Dyche, A.M Evanston. 

TERM EXPIRES IN I9O4. 

Robert Dickinson Sheppard, A.M., D.D Evanston. 

JosiAH J. Parkhurst Evanston. 



2 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Frank O. Lowden, A.B., LL.B Chicago. 

David McWilliams Dwight. 

Charles P. Wheeler, A.M Evanston. 

Nina Grey Lunt Evanston. 

GusTAvus Franklin Swift Chicago. 

Henry Howard Gage Evanston. 

Hon. Lyman Judson Gage New York City. 

TERM expires IN I9O5. 

Norman Waite Harris Chicago. 

Nathan Smith Davis, Jr., A.M., M.D Chicago. 

Harvey Bostwick Hurd, LL.D Evanston. 

John Richard Lindgren Evanston. 

Hon. H. H. C. Miller, A.M Evanston. 

Hon. Elbert Henry Gary .New York City. 

Milton Hollyday Wilson Evanston. 

Alexander Hamilton Revell Chicago. 

Hon. Henry Sherman Boutell, A.M Chicago. 



ELECTED BY CONFERENCES. 
rock river. 

Rev. John Patrick Brushingham, A.M., D.D Chicago. 

Rev. Joseph T. Ladd Elgin. 

DETROIT. 

Rev. Joseph Flintoft Berry, D.D Chicago. 

CENTRAL ILLINOIS. 

Rev. George R. Palmer, A.M., D.D Onarga. 

Rev. J. Wellington Frizzelle Rock Island. 

MICHIGAN. 

Rev. George Smith Hickey, A.M., D.D Detroit. 

Rev. Edward George Lewis, S.T.B., D.D Grand Rapids. 



GENERAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
William Deering. John Richard Lindgren. 

Oliver H. Horton, LL.D. Josiah J. Parkhurst. 

Frank Philip Crandon, A.M. Milton Hollyday Wilson. 
H. H. C. Miller, A.M. James B. Hobbs. 

Nathan S. Davis, Jr., A.M., M.D. William A. Dyche, A.M. 
Robert Dickinson Sheppard, D.D.Henry Howard Gage. 

Edmund Janes James, A.M., Ph.D. LL.D. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 3 

Northwestern University consists of eight departments 
or schools. Four of these (Law, Medicine, Dentistry, and 
Pharmacy) are located in or near the center of the City of 
Chicago. The other four (College of Liberal Arts, The- 
ology, Music and the Academy) are situated in Evanston,. 
the most beautiful suburb of Chicago, immediately adjoin- 
ing the city on the north. 

The College Campus is located directly on the shore of 
Lake Michigan about three miles north of the city limits. 

For general information relating to the University as a 
whole, general catalogues, etc., address 

University Hall, 

Northwestern University, 

Evanston, Illinois. 

L 

THE COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS. 
College Campus, Evanston. 

Offers a four years' course leading to the Bachelor's De- 
gree in Languages and Literature (English, French, Ger- 
man, Italian, Spanish, Latin, Greek, Hebrew) ; Mathemat- 
ics (college and advanced) ; Science (Astronomy, Botany, 
Zoology, Chemistry, Physics, Mineralogy, Geology) ; His- 
tory (ancient, mediaeval and modern) ; Philosophy, Psy- 
chology, Pedagogy, Economics, and Politics, and Sociology 
and other subjects appropriate to a modern college. 

Numerous graduate courses are also offered leading to 
the Degree of A.M. and in a few subjects to that of Ph.D. 

Special advantages are offered to the graduates of this 
college in the professional schools of the University. 

For further information address 

College of Liberal Arts, 
Evanston, Illinois. 



4 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

II. 

MEDICAL SCHOOL. 
Chicago. 

"Offers a four years' course leading to the Degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine. The hospital and clinical facihties are 
especially good. This school was the first in the United 
States to take three important steps in medical education : 
the enforcement of the standard of preliminary education, 
adoption of longer annual courses, and the graded curricu- 
lum. 

It ranks fourth in attendance among University Medical 
Schools in the United States. 

For further information address 

Northwestern University Medical School, 
2421 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

III. 

LAW SCHOOL. 
Chicago. 
Offers a three years' course in Law leading to the Degree 
of Bachelor of Laws. Special facilities are provided for a 
thorough preparation in the practical as well as theoretical 
aspect of the Law. The library is adequate to all the ordi- 
nary needs of the student, including over ten thousand vol- 
umes, while the proximity of the Chicago Law Institute pro- 
vides an additional collection of nearly forty thousand, 
which the students are at liberty to use. 

The students come from all parts of the country and the 
courses are arranged with a view to giving them that knowl- 
edge of Law which will be indispensable to them wherever 
they may practice. 

For further information address 

Northwestern University Law School, 
Northwestern University Building, 
Corner of Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 3 

IV. 

SCHOOL OF PHARMACY. 
Chicago. 

Offers courses leading to the Degree of Graduate in 
Pharmacy and that of Pharmaceutical Chemist. The course 
includes instruction in general Chemistry, Chemical Analy- 
sis, Pharmacy, Botany, Microscopy, Pharmacognosy, Dis- 
pensing, and Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, includ- 
ing Drug Assaying, Bacteriology, and Sanitary Analysis. 
It ranks first in attendance among University Schools of 
Pharmacy in this country. 

For further information address 

Northwestern University School of Pharmacy, 
Northwestern University Building, 
Corner of Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago. 



V. 

DENTAL SCHOOL. 
Chicago. 

Offers a three years' course (four years after 1902-3) 
leading to the Degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery. The 
facilities of the practical and theoretical instruction in the 
school are unusually good. The new location is particu- 
larly well adapted for the convenience of the students and 
instructors. The number of matriculants during the last 
year was 535. It is the largest University Dental School 
in the world. 

For further information address 

Northwestern University Dental School, 
Northwestern University Building, 
Corner of Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago. 



6 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

VJ. 

SCHOOL OF MUSIC. 
College Campus, Evanston. 

Offers extensive courses in the practical and theoretical 
study of music and is designed to prepare students for the 
profession as composers, theorists, artists, teachers, or crit- 
ics. It also makes provision for the study of Music as a 
part of general culture or as an accomplishment. It offers 
three and four year courses leading to an appropriate de- 
gree in Music. 

For further information address 

School of Music, 
Evanston, Illinois. 

VII. 

SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY. 

Evanston. 

The Garrett Biblical Institute, open to all young men 
from any evangelical church v^ho are properly recommended 
as candidates for the Christian ministry, offers a three 
years' course arranged for classical graduates of approved 
colleges leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Divinity; 
also a four years' course open to college graduates leading 
to the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The Norwegian-Danish theological department, estab- 
lished to prepare men for the ministry among the Norv^e- 
gians and Danish people, offers its students an opportunity 
to pursue their theological studies in English, Norv^egian 
and Danish languages. 

The Sv^edish Theological Seminary, organized to meet 
the increasing demands for educated pastors and mission- 
aries among the Swedish population in the United States, 
offers a four years' course in Divinity. 

For further information address the respective schools, 
Evanston, Illinois. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 7 

VIII. 

ACADEMY. 
College Campus, Evanston. 

Offers a large variety of courses preparatory to college 
and practical life. The proximity of the college department, 
with its many facilities, constitutes a great advantage to the 
Academy. Young men and women will find here oppor- 
tunity to'prepare for any college in the country. 

For further information address 

Northwestern University Academy, 
Evanston, Illinois. 

A second Academy, under the name of Grand Prairie 
Seminary, is maintained by the University at Onarga, Illi- 
nois. Special facilities are afforded for preparing for col- 
lege and technical schools or other higher institutions of 
learning. The location in a small town makes it possible 
for the authorities to offer low rates of tuition and board. 
An excellent commercial course is also offered in this in- 
stitution. 

For further information address 

Grand Prairie Seminary, 
Onarga, Illinois. 

IX. 

SCHOOL OF ORATORY. 
College Campus, Evanston. 

A School of Oratory is conducted on the College Campus 
under the auspices of the University. The course of study 
covers two years. There is also a third course for gradu- 
ates devoted especially to English Literature. The curricu- 
lum of this school is of benefit to persons intending to take 
up any career in which public speaking or writing is an 
important element. It is naturally of special use to clergy- 



g NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

men and lawyers and those intending to teach reading and 
elocution in our High Schools and Colleges. 

Address 

Director of School of Oratory, 

Evanston, Illinois. 

X. 

PRIVILEGES ACCORDED TO WOMEN. 

Women are admitted to all departments of the University 
except the Medical School on substantially the same terms 
as men. 

For further information as to the Residence Halls for 
Women, etc., address 

Dean of Women, 
Willard Hall, Evanston, Illinois. 



A 



Quarterly Bulletin 

OF 

Northwestern University Dental School 



Series I. JUNE, 1902. Number I. 

G. V. BLACK, Editor for the University 

ORAL SURGERY CLINIC. 

Northwestern University Dental School. 

Clinical Report of a case of Empyema of the Maxillary Sinus with 
radical operation for its cure, by Thomas L. Gilmer, M. D., D. 
D. S. 

The patient we now present is Dr. J. C. L., a physician. He 
is American born, 50 years old, and brought to the surgical clinic 
by senior student McGinnis. 

The history of the case as given by the patient is as follows : 

One year ago he had pain on the left side of the upper jaw, in 
the region of the second molar tooth. A small abscess formed 
lingually to this tooth. The abscess has been opened several times 
during the past year and each time a little pus was evacuated. 
There was also, in December, 1900, for about one week, follow- 
ing a severe cold, pain and tenderness in the region of the left 
antrum of Highmore. At the same time there was considerable 
discharge of offensive pus from the left nostril. During the past 
year there has been little pain or tenderness until about two weeks 
ago, though there has been a continual discharge of pus through the 
nose. This discharge was not offensive. The patient has had a 
cold during the past ten days with considerable pain about the left 
eye. 

On examination of the mouth I find on the affected side that 
the first bicuspid is crowned, presumably it has a dead pulp ; the 



lO NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

second bicuspid is missing; the first molar has a large amalgam 
filling; the third molar is missing. The gums about the first and 
second molars are receded. There is a scar on the mucous membrane 
to the lingual of the second molar at the point of the opening of 
the pus sinus. An exploration of the pus sinus reveals no connection 
with the antrum. 

The symptoms in the case pretty clearly indicate empyema of 
the maxillary sinus : They are, pain in the region of the eye, uni- 
lateral pus discharge into the nose, and both following a severe 
cold, which, perhaps, is only another name for influenza. 

It is not unusual to find engorgement, and the more serious 
trouble, empyema of the maxillary sinus, following an attack of 
la grippe. At the outset of this disease the mucous membrane of 
the nose generally very actively participates in the disturbance, 
if, indeed, it is not the initial point of infection. From the fact 
that the nasal fossae are involved in the inflammatory action, we 
readily understand that through continuity of the tissues of the 
several sinuses of the head any one of them may become involved 
in a similar condition. If, as a result of inflammatory action in the 
lining of the maxillary sinus, there is more mucus poured out than 
is readily evaporated, or if the inflammation has caused sufficient 
swelling of the turbinated bodies to temporarily close the osteum 
maxillary, we have a condition which may result in the complete 
filling of the sinus with serum, even to such an extent as to cause 
much pain, and in time bulging of the cheek and also protrusion 
of the eye. 

In addition to the excessive amount of serous fluid, we may have 
the formation of gases generated through the influence of bacteria, 
which would materially add to the pressure and consequent pain 
and bulging of the sinus walls. If the excess of fluid be evacuated 
by puncture, previous to serious pyogenic involvement of the lining 
of the sinus, we may have health restored by resolution . We may 
have a simple engorgement transformed into an empyema, which, 
owing to the poor drainage facility of the sinus, even though the 
stenosis of the natural opening has subsided. This opening being 
far above the floor of the maxillary sinus perpetuates the disease 
by the necessary retention of pus. 

It does not, necessarily, follow that we have an empyema of 
the maxillary sinus because we have unilateral discharge of pus, 
and pain in the cheek. The latter may be referred pain, and the 
former may originate from an accessory sinus, or from the nasal 



DENTAL SCHOOL 1 1 

fossa. Therefore it is generally wise to exclude, if possible, the 
nose and contiguous parts and sinuses before making a radical oper- 
ation on the antrum of Highmore, which we propose in this case. 
To make the exclusion valuable requires the skill and experience 
of a rhinologist, therefore I sent the patient to Dr. Casselberry's 
clinic of Northwestern University Medical School for examination. 

Dr. Casselberry reports that he finds on trans-illumination and 
by aspiration pus in the sinus, with a thickening of the mucous 
lining of the sinus. He finds no polypi or other disease of the 
nose except a thickening of the mucous membrane about the osteum 
maxillary on the left side. He also excludes the frontal sinuses 
and ethmoid cells. With this exclusion, and additional evidence, 
we conclude that we have a case of empyema of the maxillary sinus, 
which on account of its long standing and persistence, also the 
great flow of pus, demands a radical operation for its cure. 

I am of the opinion that the immediate cause of the diseased 
condition was the severe cold reported. The remote cause lies in 
the weakened condition of the bone and endosteum immediately 
over the buccal roots of the molar which caused the alveolar ab- 
scess. It is a well known fact that the buccal roots of the first and 
second molars penetrate very closely in some cases to the floor of 
the maxillary sinus. In this area there was perhaps a chronic in- 
flammation which only needed an acute condition in the lining of 
the floor of the sinus to cause the condition we now find. 

Since we have found that the first molar has certainly been 
involved in a persistent alveolar abscess, and since the crowned 
bicuspid has a dead pulp, which from the character of the crown 
would indicate that the root has not been skilfully treated, we will 
feel safer if these two teeth be sacrificed . We might enter the 
antrum through one of the buccal root sockets of the molar, but 
to my mind this is not the ideal location for an opening into the max- 
illary sinus except for drainage or simple irrigation. 

The patient now being anesthetised, we cleanse the site of the 
operation by washing with 50 per cent, alcohol in water. We now 
place this large piece of gauze in the mouth between the teeth well 
back on the affected side, to prevent as far as possible the blood 
flowing into the pharynx. We elevate and extend the cheek by 
using this retractor designed by Prof. Black for use in filling teeth 
and adapted to its present use by myself. This instrument not only 
fully distends the cheek, but protects it from injury during the 



12 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

operation, and at the same time its polished and bright surface 
rellects the hght, giving a better view of the field of operation. 

We now make an incision one inch or a little more in length 
through the soft parts posterio-anteriorly, on a line with the dupli- 
cature of the gums and mucous membrane of the cheek. With this 
small periosteum elevator we turn the tissue upward, exposing the 
bone composing the buccal wall of the antrum. The bone at this 
point is very thin in a patient of this age. With this large drill 
in the engine we go directly through into the sinus. We now ex- 
change the drill for this large coarse cut fiame shaped bur, with 
which we easily enlarge the opening, so as to admit the small finger 
to all parts of the cavity for exploration. 

The finger and the eye discover chat the cavity contains granu- 
lation tissue, and also that its entire lining membrane is thickened. 
I will now extract the bicuspid and molar, as I find both involved 
in the diseased area. We now curette the entire sinus, denuding its 
walls of the diseased lining membrane. . The cavity is now irrigated 
with Thiersch solution and packed with iodoform gauze. 

The subsequent treatment will be irrigation with pyrozone, fol- 
lowed by a saturated solution of boracic acid, to which is added one 
drop of oil of cassia to two ounces of the solution. The pyrozone 
and gauze packing will be continued as long as there is pus present, 
the boric solution will be continued until the opening is closed. An 
opening made as high up as this prevents the ingress of food, since 
the cheek folds over it, closing the orifice. Had the opening been 
made through the socket of one of the buccal roots of the molar it 
would have been difficult to have prevented food crowding into the 
sinus unless the opening were closed with a plug; besides, by this 
route much more bone would have been removed in gaining ample 
access to the sinus. 

At the time of revising this report of the operation, May 22, 
1902, the antrum is completely well, and but a small opening re- 
mains which will be fully closed in a short time. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 13 

A FEW SECTIONS OF THE PERIDENTAL MEMBRANE. 
By F. B. Noyes, B. A., D. D. S. 

The human teeth are not a part of the oseous system and 
though borne upon the bones of the jaws and composed of calcified 
tissues they are really of very distinct character from bone. In 
view of their origin and development they are clearly appendages 
of the skin and their relation to the bone is purely a secondary mat- 
ter to give them greater support and usefulness. 

The attachment of the teeth is accomplished by means of the 
peridental membrane, the fibers of which are built into the substance 
of the tooth on the one side and the substance of the bone on the 
other. 

The amount of fibrous tissue, especially about the teeth of young 
persons, is much greater than is generally supposed. Most people 
consider their teeth very immovably fixed in their jaws, but a 
careful examination of the sensations of biting hard on a single 
tooth will convince one of the fact that in use there is a consider- 
able movement of the teeth; and if further proof is necessary it 
may be had by observing the amount of movement obtainable in 
a few minutes with a separator, or by observing the wear of prox- 
imal surfaces where the teeth rub against each other in mastication. 
This is not infrequently sufficient to cut entirely through the enamel. 

In separating the teeth for filling, except perhaps in some cases 
where slow separation is used to gain much space, there is no 
change in the bone of the socket, but the space is obtained by com- 
pressing the fibrous tissue on one side of the root and stretching 
the fibers on the other, crowding the tooth to one side of its alve- 
olus. 

It is instructive to study, somewhat closely, a few transverse 
sections of a root and the supporting tissues. The first illutration 
shows a section of the root of a lateral incisor from a young sheep. 
The tooth has been in position about six months and the section is 
just beyond the border of the alveolar process so as to show the 
entire outline of the alveolus. The pulp is seen, showing the blood 
vessels. The outermost layer of dentin or granular layer of Tomes 
is seen as the light band. Two layers of cementum are seen which 
differ in thickness at various points in the circumference of the 
root. It will be noticed that where specially large and strong bun- 
dles of fibers are to be attached to the root the cementum is thick. 
The irregular outline of the bone forming the wall of the alveolus 
can be followed all the way around. It will be seen that on the 



I4 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

lingual side the thickness of the peridental membrane is more than 
half the diameter of the root, while almost all of the way around 
it is as great as the thickness of the dentin. 

The arrangement of the fibers at the angles of the root, especially 
the disto-lingual and disto-labial, is seen to be such as to support 




FIG I 



the tooth against rotation. That is, the bundles of fibers springing 
from the cementum do not pass to the bone in the line of a radius 
from the center of the pulp chamber but swing off at a tangent 
from the surface of the root. This arrangement of the fibers ex- 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



15 



plains the difficulty of retaining teeth that have been rotated in or- 
thodontia cases. 

The thickness of fibrous tissue shown here is, of course, that 
of a young peridental membrane. It is much reduced as age advances 
by the added formation of cementum on the root and of bone on 
the wall of the alveolus, but the membrane remains, fastening the 
tooth to the bone. 

We often hear persons say that they think a tooth is grown 
fast to the bone or a dentist say that a tooth was ankylosed to the 
jaw. While such cases may have occurred they are certainly ex- 
ceedingly rare. Cementum will unite with cementum whenever the 
roots of teeth come in contact but cementum never unites with 
bone. 



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FIG. II 



In the gingival portion of the membrane, that is, occlusally 
from the border of the alveolar process, on the proximal surfaces 
of the root the fibers pass from the cementum of one tooth to the 
cementum of the next, interlacing across the space. These fibers 
are important as supports of the interproximal gum septum and 
when they are cut off by absorption or otherwise the dropping down 
of the gingivus results first and finally often the separation of the 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



teeth as is seen so often in cases of pyorrhoea. The strong fibers 
of the healthy side pull the tooth away from the diseased side, 
where the fibers are destroyed. In Figure 2 the fibers passing from 
tooth to tooth are not well shown, but on the labial is seen a spot 
where an area of absorption has occurred which has been repaired 
by the formation of cementum. This kind of repair of absorbed 
areas of cementum occurs frequently. 




FIG. Ill 

Figure 3 shows in higher magnification the character of the 
fibrous tissue at the surface of the root showing the fibers springing 
from the cementum and built into its substance. The layer of ce- 
mento-blasts (c. b.) is seen at the surface of the root and a lightly 
stained layer of newly formed cementum. This section has been 
stained with a reagent which colors the cells and not the fibers, so 
that the cells between the fibers (F b) are seen as little spindle- 
shaped dots while the fibers themselves are light. Two or three cords 
of epithelial cells (E c) are seen in the fibrous tissue. These are 
the so-called glands of the peridental membrane, which are still of 
unknown importance and function. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



17 



A CASE IN MINOR DENTAL SURGERY. 
A piece of a broken tooth in the lip. 

As illustrating what may come to the dentist in the out-of-the 
way characters of minor surgical operations, the following is a 
good illustration and will also illustrate some points of value in 
diagnosing and operating: 

A lad 10 years old was presented in the operative clinic of 
Northwestern University Dental School with a central incisor tooth 
that had been broken by a fall. Nearly one-half of the incisal por- 
tion of the crown was missing, the pulp of the tooth had been ex- 
posed by the break, and alveolar abscess was then forming, for 
which he sought relief. The face was at the time considerably 
swollen, but this presented no unusual characters. It was noted 
that the lower lip presented an enlarged and thickened appearance, 
and it is to this that I wish to direct especial attention. Inquiry 
elicited the fact that the lower lip had been badly cut at the time 
of the accident, and the lad claimed that the piece of the tooth 
that had been broken off was lodged in the lip. An examination 
of the lip showed that the wound had healed perfectly and the tissue 
was of good appearance. The feeling between the fingers upon dig- 
ital examination elicited nothing except a thickened condition of the 
tissue, but still the lad said he felt the piece of the tooth when 
pressure was made on the lip, or that there was something in the 
lip that gave a cutting sensation when pressure was brought in cer- 
tain directions. In order to determine whether he was right or not 
as to the lodgment of the piece of tooth in the lip I made the tissue 
tense by holding it between my fingers and passed a very sharp, 
slender explorer into it. This came upon a hard substance and the 
slipping of the explorer on the surface showed it to be enamel, thus 
completing the diagnosis at once. Then, with an ordinary abscess 
knife that had been dipped into an antiseptic a cut was made into 
the lip, laying it open across the hard substance, which was well 
exposed. This was then dislodged with a pair of ordinary dressing 
pliers, and upon examination it was found to be the complete piece 
of the tooth that had been loosened by the accident. After the 
removal of the piece the wound was well syringed with sterilized 
water, to which a few drops of oil of cassia had been added, and 
stitched up with ordinary silk ligature saturated with Black's 
1-2-3 to render it thoroughly antiseptic. The surface of the lip was 
well dried and then covered with collodion, which completed the 
operation. The wound healed by first intention. 



l8 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

The peculiar feature of this case, and the interesting point aside 
from the manner of diagnosis and operation, is the fact that this 
piece of tooth lodged m the lip and the tissues healed perfectly 
instead of suppuration occurring, as would generally be the case. 
It is very rare indeed that a complete closure of a wound of this 
kind occurs inclosing a piece of a tooth, yet the case illustrates 
well what may occur when a piece of tooth is thrust into the tissues. 
In an accident of this kind it is quite possible that the piece may 
be lodged and remain for a considerable length of time before pro- 
ducing an abscess if it is not found and removed. While generally 
an abscess follows speedily after forcing such a piece of tooth into 
the tissues, such pieces of tooth cannot be excluded from wounds 
the result of accident even after they have healed because of the 
fact that suppuration has not occurred. 

Note. This determining of the character of substances by the 
touch of the steel probe or sharp steel explorer is a matter of great 
importance to the dentist because of the many instances that present 
in practice in which it is necessary to determine the character of 
some unknown substance lying in the tissues. This is easily done 
after a little careful practice in noting the sensations induced by 
the contact of the probe and sharp explorer with different sub- 
stances. 

In striking enamel, dentin or bone with a blunt steel probe 
each will give out a sound of a different note, or tone, that becomes 
easily recognizable. Again, in using the sharp steel explorer one 
will soon find that when it comes in contact with enamel it will 
invariably slip upon the surface instead of catching in the tissue 
and holding firmly in one position. Upon dentin and cementum it 
will penetrate enough to catch and hold, but the sensation is that of 
contact with a very hard substance. In bone the sharp instrument 
will penetrate more easily, giving the impression of a much softer 
substance. Practice in noting these sensations becomes very im- 
portant to the dentist because of the many cases in which broken 
pieces of teeth has been left in the jaws, or appear in abscess, or 
the presence of impacted teeth must be determined. Only a short 
time since a case of abscess occurring in the upper jaw of a person 
who had been wearing a full upper plate for some years, with com- 
fort until two months previous, was presented for diagnosis. A 
blunt steel probe introduced into the track of the sinus soon came 
upon a hard substance which, when lightly struck, gave the sharp 
tone of enamel. The sharp explorer was also tried and the manner 



DENTAL SCHOOL ig 

in which it sHpped on the hard substance confirmed the diagnosis. 
An impacted tooth lay buried in the tissue. In this case the patient 
had no knowledge of any tooth of the set having been missing and 
was certain that all of the teeth in the upper jaw had been extracted; 
yet it was certain that a tooth was in the tissue. After cutting away 
sufficiently the tooth was grasped with the forcep and removed and 
was found to be a normal bicuspid that had failed to erupt. Such 
cases should not often be difficult of diagnosis by one who has ac- 
quired skill in handling steel probes and explorers. 

G. V. Black. 



^ 



20 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 
DENTAL SCHOOL. 

FACULTY. 

Edmund J. James, A.M, Ph.D., LL.D., President of the University. 



Greene Vardiman Black, M.D., D.D.S., Sc.D., LL.D., Dean, Pro- 
fessor of Operative Dentistry, Pathology and Bacteriology. 

Thomas Lewis Gilmer, M.D., D.D.S., Professor of Oral Surgery, 

Elgin MaWhinney, D.D.S., Professor of Special Pathology, 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

Edmund Noyes, D.D.S., Professor of Dental Jurisprudence and 
Ethics. 

William Edward Harper, D.D.S., Professor of Operative Technics, 
Assistant Professor of Operative Dentistry. Secretary of 
the Faculty. 

James Harrison Prothero, D.D.S., Professor of Prosthetic Tech- 
nics, Prosthetic Dentistry and Metallurgy. 

Frederick Bogue Noyes, B.A., D.D.S., Professor of Histology. 

TwiNG Brooks Wiggin, M.D., Professor of Physiology and Path- 
ology. 

Vernon James Hall, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry. 

George A. Dorsey, Ph.D., Professor of Comparative Anatomy. 

Charles Lewis Mix, A.M., M.D., Professor of Anatomy. 



Fred William Gethro, D.D.S., Lecturer on Operative Technics. 
Eugene S. Willard, D.D.S., Lecturer on Bacteriology. 
Ira Benson Sellery, D.D.S., Lecturer on Orthodontia. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 21 



THE DEMONSTRATORS. 
As the demonstrating force does not receive appointment until 
September, those for 1902-1903 cannot be given in this announce- 
ment. Each year a number of the members of the old force is 
retained and new demonstrators are appointed, mostly from those 
of the graduating class who by especial merit received this dis- 
tinction. 

DEMONSTRATORS AND INSTRUCTORS OF 1901-1902. 
James W. Birkland, D.D.S. Otto C. Meves, D.D.S. 
George B. Macfarlane, D.D.S. Melvin Ray Nelson^ D.D.S. 
George M. Brosnihan, D.D.S. Walter J. Petrie, D.D.S. 
Herbert Milton Craig, D.D.S. Ira Benson Seller y, D.D.S. 
Charles H. Converse, D.D.S. Adolph Emil Schneider, D.D.S. 
Robert Kepler Davis, D.D.S. Leonard J. Schneider, D.D.S. 
Wm. C. Ercanbrack, D.D.S. A. Clarence Schoch, D.D.S. 
BuELL Henline, D.D.S. McGuire Snyder, D.D.S. 

William Henry Jordan, D.D.S. Wm. Albert Thomas, D.D.S. 
Arthur Inglesby Kennedy D.D.S Eugene S. Willard, D.D.S. 
John S. Laidlaw, D.D.S. Thos. Ottaway Treen, D.D.S. 

Joseph Francis Lunak, D.D.S. Benjamin Waldberg, D.D.S. 

QUIZ MASTERS. 

Arthur D. Black, M.D., D.D.S. Walter J. Petrie, D.D.S. 
George M. Brosnihan, D.D.S. Adolph Emil Schneider, D.D.S. 
Charles H. Converse, D.D.S. Leonard Julius Schneider, D.D.S. 
Herbert Milton Craig, D.D.S. Eugene S. Willard, D.D.S. 
William Henry Jordan, D.D.S. A. Clarence Schoch, D.D.S. 

ASSISTANTS IN ORAL SURGERY. 

AiTHUR D. Black, B.S., M.D., D.D.S. 
William Burnham Fiske, M.D. 
Mrs. Edna M. Thompson, D. D. S. 

LIBRARIAN. 
Miss C. M. Willard. 



22 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

DENTAL SCHOOL. 
Northwestern University Dental School was found- 
ed and is maintained by the University, for the purpose of 
preparing young men and women in the most thorough 
manner for the practice of dentistry, and for the promo- 
tion of dental science and Hterature. No expense has been 
spared in its equipment or in the employment of an adequate 
faculty of skilled teachers, with a large force of demon- 
strators and assistants. 

THE MANAGEMENT. 

For the management of the Dental School the University 
has the services of Dr. G. V. Black, who has the direction 
of the educational work of the school, and of Dr. W. E. 
Harper, secretary and business manager, who has the di- 
rection of the financial affairs, and also gives a part of 
his time to teaching. Dr. Black gives his entire time to 
the direction of the educational features of the school and 
to teaching, duties for which his long experience in 
teaching and wide familiarity with dental literature 
and educational matters render him especially fitted. 
It is becoming well known that if a dental school is to suc- 
ceed well, its business must be judiciously managed, to the 
end that the most possible may be made of its income for 
the benefit of its classes. It is equally true that the devising 
and management of the courses of instruction, the order and 
modes of the presentation of subjects to students, and the 
arrangement of teachers and students in classes, sub-classes, 
and sections for lectures, class-work, laboratory exercises, 
and clinical teaching, require constant care and study of a 
high order to enable students to realize the best results 
from their efforts during their years of school work. 

In order that the realization of these ends may be attained 
in the highest possible degree, the University has secured 
this combination in the management of its school. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 23 



THE NEW BUILDING. 



It was announced last year that the University had added 
to its facilities for instruction a new building at the cost 
of a half million dollars, which has now been fitted for the 
uses of the dental school, law school and the pharmacy 
school at an additional cost of $250,000. It will also accom- 
modate the city offices of the University, and dental supply 
houses for the accommodation of students of the school. 
This building is situated at the southeast corner of Dear- 
born and Lake streets, and is especially convenient to reach 
from all lines of travel, both suburban and general, and is 
within the loop of the elevated roads. It has a front- 
age of 180 feet on Dearborn street and a front- 
age of 160 feet on Lake street. It has an inner court 
for light 90 by 60 feet, which, in the upper stories, 
makes the light from the court side of rooms equal 
to that from the street side. It is six stories high, and is 
substantially and elegantly built. The dental school will 
occupy the two upper floors, and a part of the second floor. 
The different schools in this building will be entirely 
separate from each other and as distinct as if they were in 
different buildings, each having its own especial space. The 
building will also contain the city offices of the University 
and an assembly hall for University gatherings of various 
sorts. 

In order that the arrangement of this building and its 
floor space may be better understood we herewith present 
CUTS OF THE FLOOR PLANS of thosc portions of the building 
to be occupied by the dental school. Figure i represents 
the floor plan of the clinic and lecture room floor, sixth 
story, upon which the principal rooms are named. This is 
reached by the elevators from the Lake street entrance. 
This floor must be considered in connection with Figure 2 
in order to be understood, for the reason that in a certain 




^'ri?^=#t'4i5i^ 



Northwestern University Building 
Southeast Corner of Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago, 



DENTAL SCHOOL 25 

part of the space the hight is divided into a second floor. 
The space as a whole is twenty-four feet from floor to ceil- 
ing, and in the lecture rooms and in the great clinic room 
this whole height is used as a single floor, but in all other 
parts it is divided into two floors, the upper one of which 
will be known as the mezzanine floor, therefore the lec- 
ture rooms appear in part on Figure i and as a whole upon 
Figure 2. 

Upon reaching the sixth floor by elevator you will 
enter a large corridor and turning to the left will enter im- 
mediately into the great clinic room in which a space is 
set apart by dotted lines as the waiting room for patients 
AND VISITORS, separated from the great clinic room only 
by a raihng. Immediately adjacent to this are the business 
office, the book-keeping department and the examiners' 
room, all of which are of easy access for patients, visitors 
and those who may have business with the school. All 
of these open into the great clinic room. At the south end 
of the room are the Dean's office and the office for the dis- 
tribution of material to students. This clinic is 142 feet 
long by 46 feet in width: The ceiling is of an arch form 
and rises 24 feet from the floor. It is lighted by great win- 
dows on two sides and by a skylight running the entire 
length of the room, and suitable electric lights are arranged 
for dark afternoons. This room will accomodate the op- 
erative clinic, and will be furnished with 130 dental chairs, 
each of which will be accompanied with a fountain cuspidor 
and other similar fixtures, making the equipment complete 
in every detail. For accommodation of students' lockers the 
space over the waiting room and business office at the north 
end and also the space over the Dean's office and the material 
office at the south end are converted into galleries. These 
galleries are easily reached by stairways directly from the 
clinic room, and communicate with the mezzanine floor, from 
which the students enter the lecture rooms. 



26 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



I/AFLry STM^CX 



BOOK-?<lCEiPBn| 



toii/rt 



PRE.I>AR>\TION 



ROOM 



ORI>iS.T • CI^IfMlC • P;OOM 

/4Z"46 




FIG. I. 
Sixth Floor. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



27 




b 

t 



I 2.0 «.T0 



VK>£it • frAKT ■ or CROWW 6 BKIDCE, -ROOM 



SJCy- IvICiMT 



f 



ANkVTOMICcAJU 



VA.«ORA.XOIty 



I J 



SI--SA 



FIG. IL 
Mezzanine Floor. 



28 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

The crown and bridge room is divided from the great 
clinic room only by a broad archway ; it is 53 feet long and 
32 feet wide. It is lighted upon two sides and by a skylight 
running the length of the room. It will accommodate thirty 
operating chairs. This space for the clinical operations of 
the school is furnished with wash bowls and water at various 
convenient points, and it will be seen that the arrangement 
of the material office and the various other departments are 
within easy access to students. 

The SENIOR PROSTHETIC LABORATORY is immediately ad- 
jacent to the crown and bridge room and is 54 feet long by 
24 feet wide. It is furnished with electric lathes for grind- 
ing and polishing work and with electric ovens and other 
necessary equipment for porcelain work and the variety of 
apparatus necessary in that department. It contains lockers 
for the instruments of students for this especial work. Re- 
moved from this a few feet and easily reached is the im- 
pression ROOM, with A w^AiTiNG ROOM for the patients in 
this department. The two extracting rooms open from 
the same corridor as the impression room ; they have also 
a waiting room, and are very well lighted. These extract- 
ing rooms are very well apart from the other clinic rooms 
and yet are of easy access. They may be reached through 
the halls passing the lecture rooms, or from the clinic room 
passing the crown and bridge room, so that patients may 
be passed from the waiting room to the extracting rooms 
without going through the clinic rooms, or they may go 
directly from the clinic rooms to the extracting rooms. 

The system of lecture rooms is very complete in its 
arrangement. Each one of these rooms is especially sup- 
plied with a preparation room for the uses of the Professors, 
each one occupies the entire height of the story, or 24 feet, 
and each will seat comfortably about 225 students. They 
are seated on the amphitheater plan, or with seats that rise 
in tiers above each other, so that in the back part of each 



DENTAL SCHOOL 29 

the space under the seats may be occupied for other pur- 
poses. These spaces under the seats are shown in Figure i, 
while the whole seating space of each lecture room is shown 
in Figure 2, with students' entrances from the mezzanine 
floor. The arrangement of doors and space in Figure i 
shows accurately the preparation rooms used by the Profess- 
ors, while in Figure 2 is shown the arrangement of the body 
of the lecture room as used by students. 

The oral surgery room has been especially designed 
for its particular uses and is very complete in its arrange- 
ment and equipment for the handling of the classes of sur- 
gical cases for which it is designed. From the corridor one 
enters first into the waiting room for patients, suitably fur- 
nished with chairs and accessories. From this the patient 
is ushered into the preparation room, a three-cornered space 
with abundant light, in which such preparation as may be 
necessary can be done before entering the oral surgery room 
proper. It is also large enough to accommodate much of 
the equipment necessary in the oral surgery department. 
This communicates immediately with the operating area 
of the oral surgery room; it also communicates by a short 
hall with what is marked as the recovery room, a room 12 
by 20 feet, equipped with bedding and the necessary appara- 
tus for taking care temporarily of patients who have been 
operated upon, or during the time of recovery from an- 
aesthetics, and such other accommodations as may be re- 
quired. Also these rooms are made to communicate with 
the preparation rooms of the other lecture rooms, all of 
which may be brought into use for the accommodation of 
surgical patients if that should become necessary. This 
places at the command of the oral surgeon abundant room 
for caring for any number of patients that are liable to pre- 
sent in emergency, and will enable him, with his assistants, 
to present and operate a large number of clinical cases in 
the shortest possible time when necessary. With the high 



30 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

ceiling and system of ventilation the oral surgery and lec- 
ture rooms are especially good and comfortable for the pur- 
poses designed. All of them are lighted from the ceiling. 

The ANATOMICAL LABORATORY is on the mezzanine floor 
and very well apart from the other rooms, and yet it is of 
easy access from any part of the fifth and sixth floors. It 
is large and well lighted upon two sides and by skylights, 
making it a very desirable room for the purpose intended. 
Connected with it is a private room for the accommodation 
of the Professor of this department. By comparison of 
Figures i and 2 it will be seen that the preparation room of 
the lecture room is directly under it, and is reached con- 
veniently by a stairway, which brings the anatomical labo- 
ratory in close connection with the lecture room. This room 
is equipped with suitable tables, wash bowls with hot and 
cold water, and every convenience for anatomical work. 

The fifth floor (Figure 3) is the laboratory floor 
proper and contains the principal laboratories for the 
Freshman and Junior classes, the library, museum and 
THE reading room. This may be reached by three separate 
stairways or by elevator from the clinic room or directly by 
elevator upon entrance into the building. The laboratories 
are roomy and well lighted, and furnished with electric 
power for lathes and improved apparatus and arrangements, 
each for its especial work. The arrangement of the floor 
plans show very clearly the different rooms and their pur- 
poses. The reading room, which is entered almost directly 
from the elevator, is furnished with tables and chairs for 
the accommodation of about 100 students at one time, and 
the arrangement of the museum is such that the students 
can examine the specimens at all times. The library is 
easy of access, with Librarian in attendance, and the student 
will find books upon all departments of dentistry and col- 
lateral subjects, and the journal literature is almost com- 
plete. The room is well lighted and pleasantly situated, and 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



X/IKlLAIlV-MVSE.VM-iVNb- RE>AAIN^>ROOM 




FIG. IIL 
Fifth Floor. 



32 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

especially desirable as a place for the student to pursue the 
work of study. Here he can always find a quiet place and 
books for the further investigation of any subject in den- 
tistry. In the journal room a space is set apart with 
tables and chairs especially for the use of the Professors of 
the school or visitors who may wish a place for purposes 
of study apart from distractions of other parts of the build- 
ing. This is especially intended as an assistance in the 
study work of the preparation of lectures or articles when 
much consultation of books and journals may be required 
by the Professors or friends of the school. The Librarian 
will be at hand to furnish any books on the subjects con- 
nected with dentistry that may be required for such purposes. 

The arrangement of the laboratories upon this floor 
seems to be sufficiently explained by Figure 3. They are 
well equipped and well lighted, each having its own arrange- 
ment for electric light upon dark days or other times when 
they may be needed 

The histological and bacteriological laboratories 
occupy one room, 64 by 25 feet, using the same micro- 
scopes and other general equipment, but the histological 
laboratory has its own preparation room at one end of this 
space, while the bacteriological laboratory has its own 
preparation room at the other end, making these two depart- 
ments entirely distinct- from each other, yet using the same 
room, benches, etc., for its teaching purposes. 

It will be noted that each of the laboratories on this floor 
has its Professor's room, or room for its material, or what- 
ever accommodation it may need, in space set apart for its 
special purposes. It will also be noted in looking over these 
floor plans that there are a number of small rooms unnamed, 
which will be used as private rooms for the Professors or for 
some special purpose connected with the school work as 
may from time to time be required. These rooms will be 
of great convenience. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 









T»BesiDEJVX>5 













PI?E.SHMEN • CHBMICA.!^- LABORA-TOKV 




FIG. IV. 
Second Floor. 



34 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Figure 4 represents the floor plans of the second 
FLOOR of the building, only a part of which is used by the 
dental school for its chemical laboratories. There are 
two separate chemical laboratories, one for the freshmen 
and one for the junior class, with the necessary material 
room, scale room, etc. The laboratories are large and well 
equipped. These are reached by elevator or by stairway 
conveniently from the rooms above. There are three stair- 
ways connecting the rooms above with this floor aside from 
the elevator connection. 

The office of 'the President of the University will 
be on this floor, also the assembly hall, a room 60 by 40 
feet designed for University gatherings of whatever sort 
that may be desirable. The Alumni parlors, devoted es- 
pecially to the uses of the Alumni of the school. The of- 
fices of the dental supply houses will be on the Dearborn 
street side. The other rooms on this floor will be used for 
the various purposes of the University. 

The LAW school will occupy the third floor, while the 
scpiooL OF PHARMACY will occupy the fourth floor. 

SITUATION AND SURROUNDINGS. 
Northwestern University Dental School is on the 
corner of Dearborn and Lake streets and is within the prin- 
cipal business center of the city and in close touch with all 
of the principal surface and elevated lines of general and 
suburban travel with the different portions of the city, of 
its suburbs and the country. It is also within easy walking 
distance of a good boarding-house district on the North 
Side. Therefore, its students may reside conveniently 
in any part of the city or its suburbs. This gives 
them the widest possible range of choice of residence 
while attending the school without inconvenience in coming 
and going. It also gives the school the widest range of ter- 
ritory from which to draw the extensive clinic so necessary 



DENTAL SCHOOL 35 

to a great dental school. The material supply for this clinic 
comes from all parts of the city of Chicago and its suburbs, 
and is dependent largely upon the personal influence of the 
students of the school, each one of whom draws from per- 
sonal friends and acquaintances made in and about their 
places of residence patients who make up the personal clin- 
ical practice of the individual student under the supervision 
of the demonstrators in the school. In this the out-of-town 
student seems to be in no respect less favored than the stu- 
dent whose home is in the city. This gaining and holding 
a personal clinical practice under the supervision of the in- 
structors in the clinic rooms has come to be one of the feat- 
ures of this school that has a telling effect upon the after- 
practice of its students ; for by this plan of work the stu- 
dent not only learns the theory of practice and the manipu- 
lations of practical operations in dentistry, but he passes at 
once to the work of practical experience in building a prac- 
tice for himself and in gaining that skill in professional 
comity and personal manner between himself and his pa- 
tients which is as necessary to him in after years in drawing 
together and maintaining a practice as his knowledge of den- 
tal diseases and his skill in their treatment. 

For these reasons the residence of students in groups in 
widely different portions of the city is favored. This also 
gives the advantages of a more homelike life while giving 
in the aggregate a far better conception of life in a great city 
and decidedly better opportunity to draw upon its advan- 
tages while shunning the disadvantages of large gatherings 
of students in a single locality. 

Chicago is a great city and gives many advantages to the 
student who learns early to avail himself of them. Lincoln 
Park on the north offers, besides its beautiful pleasure 
grounds, some grand botanical gardens and winter conserva- 
tories where all manner of plants may be enjoyed or studied. 
A fine ZOOLOGICAL collection where a large variety of ani- 



36 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

mal and bird life may be studied, and the museum of Nat- 
ural History, in which there is a very large collection of 
birds, animals ,and fossil remains of extinct animal life. 
Jackson and Washington Parks on the south, besides 
their splendid pleasure grounds, also offer splendid botanical 
gardens and winter conservatories, while the Field Co- 
lumbian Museum offers a rare collection of Natural His- 
tory specimens especially suited for the study of compara- 
tive dental anatomy, and of modern and ancient human 
skulls and the condition of the teeth in the various races and 
types of men in different ages. The admission to this mu- 
seum is free to students on presentation of their matricula- 
tion tickets to this school. Many other parks afford fa- 
vorite pleasure grounds. 

A Number of Libraries are accessible to students who 
have taste for study, or for looking up subjects of interest, 
scientific, literary, or in connection with special studies. 

The University Library Collections offer very 
abundant facilities for students. They are ample in the num- 
ber of books adapted to the different schools and are so situ- 
ated as to be easily accessible ; generally within the school 
buildings. They consist of : 

The College collection. 

The Law collection. 

The Medical collection. 

The Pharmacy collection. 

The Library of the Dental School, and 

The Theological collection. 

Chicago Library (279,494 volumes, June, 1902) is on 
Michigan avenue and Washington street, five minutes' 'walk 
from the school. It is one of the finest libraries in the coun- 
try. Students may receive books from this library when 
vouched for by responsible persons known to the officials. 
This library has also many branch offices in different parts 
of the city, from which books may be received on application. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 37 

These will often be convenient to the boarding places of 
students. 

The Newberry Library is very large (251,743 volumes, 
Tune, 1902), and, besides general works, has also a large 
medical and dental library. It is on North Clark street, and 
Walton place, and may be reached in a ten minutes' walk. 
This is a reference library, and books can be used only in 
its reading rooms. 

The John Crerar Library (82,020 volumes, June, 
1902) occupies one and one-half floors in the Marshall 
Field building, corner Wabash avenue and Washington 
street. It is devoted mainly to the natural, the physical and 
the social sciences, with their applications. It is a most 
excellent collection of books. It is a reference library, and 
its books are used only in its reading rooms. 

These libraries are accessible to our students, and they 
will find in them not only a very large collection of books, 
but also men in attendance who are able and willing to as- 
sist students in finding anything that they contain upon any 
given subject. 

There are a large number of other libraries, both general 
and on special subjects, that are available to the student who 
may wish to make proper and legitimate use of them. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 
The regular session of 1902-1903 will begin on Wednes- 
day, October i, 1902, and continue till the following April 
30, 1903. The regular work of the school year will begin 
immediately upon the organization of the respective classes. 
The courses of instruction are progressive and extend over a 
period of three years, the teaching in one year not being 
repeated in the next. The students are strictly graded into 
Freshmen, Junior, and Senior classes, each having its sepa- 
rate and distinct courses of study. This division of classes 
in dental schools has been the work of years. Formerly the 



38 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

several classes listened to the same lectures all in a body. 
The division into distinct courses of study is complete in 
Northwestern University Dental School. No professor de- 
livers lectures to more than one class at one time. There- 
fore in each class throughout the whole period the teaching 
is directed solely to the particular class. In the operative 
and prosthetic clinic rooms the teaching by the corps of dem- 
onstrators is directed to the individual student and adapted 
to his individual needs. These are, therefore, occupied by 
the junior and senior classes in common. 

A Resume of the several courses of study which follow 
will give a good idea of the work of the school : 

The Study of General Anatomy is begun in the 
freshman year, and continued through the freshman and 
junior years. This is made one of the most interesting and 
profitable courses of study in the school. 
Anatomy is taught by dissections, demonstrations, recita- 
tions and quizzes. The class is divided into groups under 
competent demonstrators for anatomical laboratory work. 
Recitations are conducted upon lessons previously assigned, 
which follow as closely as practicable the progress in dis- 
secting. In this way the class has the benefit derived from 
the text book, his dissections and quizzes by his demonstrator, 
before the subject is presented by the Professor, and is bet- 
ter prepared to understand and retain the subject-matter. 
In the anatomical laboratory the student is required to dissect 
the median half of the body during the two years. The arm 
and the leg in the freshman year, the head, neck and viscera 
in the junior year. 

In Histology and the Histological Laboratory 
work, the classes will be divided into sections. The fresh- 
man studies will begin with the vital manifestations 
and structure of the living cells as exhibited in the 
large, single cell animal and plant forms common in 
ponds and ditches, such as the amoeba, vorticellae, roti- 



DENTAL SCHOOL 39 

fers and infusoria. The single cell forms are followed 
by the study of the formation of cell masses, or tis- 
sues, using first the Algae forming threads and sheets 
of cells and proceeding to those that form tissues of similar 
cells. In these studies the various forms of the reproduc- 
tion or multiplication of cells will be studied. Then the 
various elemental tissues of the animal, the epithelium, con- 
nective tissue, muscular tissue, and the nerves, are taken up. 
This work is done in the first semester. In the second semes- 
ter the relations and arrangements of the elemental tissues 
in their combinations which form the organs of the body will 
be studied. The laboratory work will follow the order of 
the lectures, accompanied by regular text-book study. The 
lectures will be illustrated by a large number of photomicro- 
graphs thrown upon the screen with the electric lantern. 

The Junior Year is devoted mostly to the teeth and re- 
lated tissues. First, the bones and periosteum, then the 
dental tissues, the enamel, dentin, cementum, dental pulp 
and the peridental membranes. The enamel is studied with 
special reference to the arrangement of the enamel rods and 
their inclinations upon different parts of the crown, its lines 
of cleavage, its lines of strength and of weakness with rela- 
tion to the preparation of the enamel walls and margins of 
cavities. The nature and structure of dentin with its system 
of dentinal tubes and fibrils. The cementum, its structure, 
functions and relation to the peridental membranes, its for- 
mation, destruction and repair. The dental pulp with rela- 
tion to the formation of dentin and its structural elements 
with relation to pathological conditions. The structure and 
tissue of the peridental membrane in relation to its functions 
and its diseases. Sections of all of these tissues. are pre- 
pared, mounted and studied in the laboratory and careful 
drawings made of them by each student, so that each may 
obtain that working knowledge of them so necessary in the 
practice of operative dentistry. The large collection of pho- 



40 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

tomicrographs of these tissues used in the laboratory are of 
great assistance to the student. The development of the 
teeth is followed from the formation of the dental ridge to 
the completion of the formation of the teeth. In this work 
demonstrations in modeling clay clear up many difficulties. 

Physiology will include a course of two lectures per 
week during the freshman year and one lecture per week 
during the junior year. 

General Pathology. This course, consisting of one 
lecture per week during the junior year, while essential to 
render the student intelligent as to general pathological con- 
ditions, forms the basis of his studies of the special pathol- 
ogy of the tissues of the teeth, their membrances and corre- 
lated tissues and organs of the mouth. 

In Operative Technics the subject is taught by lec- 
tures, illustrated by models, by demonstrations, and by 
exercises in manipulation by the students, under the 
personal direction of the professor and his assistants. 
The first two weeks are given mostly to the study of 
dental nomenclature, or the study of the names of 
things with which the student must become familiar in 
the course of his dental studies. Then descriptive human 
dental anatomy is taken up and the forms and surface mark- 
ings of each tooth studied. This part of the work is illus- 
trated by models enlarged about thirty times, and by photo- 
graphs of the teeth used as lantern slides, enabling the pro- 
fessor to locate every detail of form and of surface markings 
upon the teeth so that they may be accurately understood. 
This method of illustration greatly facilitates the progress 
of the student. 

After a lecture and a recitation upon a particular tooth 
the student selects several of that denomination from a large 
number of promiscuous teeth and files at least one longitu- 
dinal and two transverse sections for the study of the pulp 
chambers and root canals, together with their relations to 



DENTAL SCHOOL 41 

the external surfaces of the tooth. This general plan is car- 
ried out with each tooth of the human mouth. In order that 
tooth forms may be more perfectly impressed upon the mind 
during- this study, a carving of a tooth of each class, as the 
incisors, cuspids, bicuspids and molars, is made by each stu- 
dent in bone or ivory representing the actual size and form 
of the tooth. In this work the roughing out is done with the 
file, but the cutting of all the detail is done with the 
excavators that the student will afterward use in practice, 
he being required to grasp and use the instruments as he will 
do in operations in the mouth. 

Instruments having now become in a degree familiar are 
taken up and their classification, the rules governing their 
construction, the range of useful forms, the names of each 
under the descriptive formula plan, and their proper care, 
are made subjects of careful study. It is particularly essen- 
tial that each student be familiar with the forms and uses 
of each instrument in his set. With this end in view he 
makes a model in brass of the working point (not the han- 
dles) of each to actual measurement and the special uses 
of each are carefully taught in connection with actual cavity 
preparation in extracted teeth, ivory and bone. In this work 
cavities are classified and models of each are made by each 
student. The requirements for the preparation of seats, 
the anchorage for fillings, and the forming and finishing of 
cavity margins, are carefully explained and strictly enforced. 
Special attention is given to the cleavage of the enamel, to its 
lines of strength, and to its lines of weakness, that these may 
be taken advantage of in practical work. In this work photo- 
micrographs of the enamel thrown upon the screen with the 
lantern are used for illustration. In all of this the teach- 
ing of instrument grasps, finger rests for the perfect con- 
trol of force, and the details of instrumentation, is continu- 
ous, and the same plans are continued and used in all the 



^^ NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

operative departments afterward by professors and demon- 
strators. 

After the cavities have been passed upon by the professor 
or his assistants, the study of the working properties of ce- 
ment, amalgam, and gold, and the instrumentation in their 
use, is studied and demonstrated, and the cavities filled by 
the student. This course is very important in the knowl- 
edge acquired, in the training of the hand and eye, and is 
interesting to the student. 

Note. — The operations in the technic departments require a very 
large number of natural teeth, and a sufficient supply is sometimes 
difficult to get. It will therefore be to the interest of students if 
they will bring with them all the extracted teeth they can obtain. 

The Junior Course in Operative Dentistry will con- 
sist of two lectures per week during the term. This work 
will be a regular advance upon the work done in operative 
technics in the freshman year, giving more definite applica- 
tion of the principles to the practical operations in the mouth. 
At the same time the students will begin putting the teach- 
ings into practice in the infirmary. 

At first a brief review in lecture and quiz of dental no- 
menclature, and especially cavity nomenclature and instru- 
ment nomenclature, will be given to be sure that all stu- 
dents know these sufficiently well to proceed and follow the 
lectures understandingly. Then the subject of cavity prep- 
aration will be given in detail step by step. Cavities will 
be classified and the plans of the formation of each class 
will be given, together v/ith the particular instrument to be 
used in each part, and the methods of instrumentation to 
be follov/ed in each individual class of cavities. 

After the lectures on Fridays the class will go to the oper- 
ative technic room 'for special drill in the instrumentation 
of cavity preparation, methods of cutting enamel, and es- 
pecially the benefit to be derived by taking advantage of 
its cleavage and the directions in which it cuts easiest under 



DENTAL SCHOOL 43 

the varying conditions in which it is presented in the mouth 
will be carefully demonstrated. The direction of the enamel 
rods on different portions of the crowns of the teeth, and 
the proper relation of the inclination of cavity walls to them 
will be studied. The forms of cavities in their relation to 
the stress of mastication, together with the forms of an- 
chorage and the strength of fillings in the different classes 
of cases, will -be presented. The final finish of margins will 
be demonstrated and taught with the purpose of bringing 
out the best efforts of the student in cavity preparation. 

It is intended that this junior course in operative dentistry 
shall be especially a drill in technical procedures in filling 
teeth. 

The Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, in all of 
its branches, will be under the supervision of the Professor 
in this department, who gives this his whole time. He will 
deliver the lectures and manage in person and through his 
assistants the quiz work and special lines of clinical instruc- 
tion. This arrangement places all of the processes of clinical 
instruction under the control and direction of one professor, 
which prevents confusion in method and in the detail of tech- 
nical procedures which so often confuse the student and 
cause loss of time in gaining a working knowledge of them. 

Prosthetic Technics will occupy three hours per day, 
three days in the week, during the freshman year, with one 
lecture per week. The lectures will accompany and cover 
the processes undertaken in the technic laboratory for each 
week, the student performing under competent demonstra- 
tors the operations and using the materials and appliances 
described in each lecture. The course will begin with tak- 
ing impressions of the mouth for partial and full cases, using 
all of the various materials and appliances employed for that 
purpose. The manipulation of plaster-of-paris, preparing 
impressions for securing models, model making, and separat- 
ing from impressions, making trial plates, occluding and 



44 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

waxing teeth in position, investment of cases, or flasking, de- 
scription of vulcanizers and the processes of vulcanization, 
scraping, carving and pohsliing vulcanized cases, and meth- 
ods of repairing vulcanite dentures, all of which will be il- 
lustrated by the practical work performed by the student in 
the laboratory. 

Crown and Bridge Work. — Preparation of the roots of 
extracted teeth for bands, fitting bands, carving cusps in 
plaster and other material, making dies, swaging cusps, 
soldering cusps to bands, and finishing. Making porcelain- 
faced crowns, conforming bands and constructing cope, 
grinding and backing facing and fitting to cope, investing, 
soldering and finishing, constructing various forms of por- 
celain and metal dummies, assembling crowns and dummies 
previously constructed and forming bridges, investing, sol- 
dering and finishing. 

Making dies and counter dies for metal work, including 
preparation of model and making sand impressions, con- 
forming metal plate to die, and swaging, trimming and fin- 
ishing swaged plate, occluding and waxing teeth in position, 
backing, investing and soldering; also attachment of teeth 
with vulcanite, grinding, filing, scraping and finishing. This 
will include full and partial cases. 

Making lower dentures of cast metal, including special 
preparation of model, waxing up, investing, casting and 
finishing cases. 

It is the intention that this course shall render the stu- 
dent familiar with the various materials and processes used 
in prosthetic dentistry, train his hand in the performance 
of the mechanical work, and fit him for the more complex 
technic work and the practical prosthetic cases to follow 
in the junior year. 

Metallurgy will be presented in a short course of lec- 
tures during the freshman year, in which those metals used 
in dentistry will be most prominently considered, as iron. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 45 

steel, copper, zinc, tin, lead, aluminum, silver, gold and plat- 
inum. 

The Instruction in Prosthetic Dentistry in the 
Junior Year will include one lecture per week, advanced 
technics and practical cases for patients. It will begin with 
a review of taking impressions and the processes in vulcanite 
and will include the details of working celluloid. The con- 
struction of gold plates, full and partial, and the working of 
aluminum in the making of cast plates and swaged plates, 
and the making of weighted dentures. Continuous gum 
work will also be introduced in this course. The principles 
of construction of all of the various crowns at present in 
use, the Logan, plain and banded, shell crowns and carving 
cusps and conforming them to Ihi occlusion, porcelain-faced 
crowns and porcelain crow^ns. Also a study of the stress 
applied by the muscles of mastication to the teeth, both 
singly and collectively, with its bearing upon crown and 
bridge construction, including the conditions under which 
bridges should or should not be used. 

The Senior Year in Prosthetic Dentistry will be de- 
voted more especially to infirmary practice, which will in- 
clude the practical construction of the various crowns, 
bridges and plates of vulcanite, gold, aluminum, celluloid, 
continuous gum, etc., for patients. An advanced lecture 
course will also be given, occupying one hour per week 
during the first semester, ivhich will include new methods 
and appliances and reviews. 

The Infirmary Prosthetic Practice will have its spe- 
cial demonstrating force, which devotes, its whole time to this 
work, and the demonstrators will be sufficient in number to 
give much time to individual students, directing them as to 
methods and demonstrating points of especial difficulty as 
they present themselves. 

The Course in Comparative Dental Anatomy will 
consist of one lecture per w^eek, followed with two hours 



46 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

in Ihe museum. In the museum the class will be di- 
vided into convenient sections for the examination and 
study of specimens. In this course the student will 
study the animals, their food habits, the uses they make of 
their teeth, the forms of their teeth as related to food habits 
and as weapons of offense and defense. This will be fol- 
lowed by a study of the extinct species of animals of the 
several classes, the variations that have occurred in their 
tooth forms in the various geological ages, together with 
the development of the complex tooth forms from the 
simple forms of the earlier animals, or the history of the 
origin and progress of the development of the tooth forms 
as they now exist in the animal world, and the uses made 
of this history by the geologist and students of natural 
history in the study of geological strata and of extinct spe- 
cies of animals. 

The Chemical Laboratories, which are used exclusive- 
ly for the teaching of Chemistry to dental students, are 
large, well ventilated, well lighted and complete in every re- 
spect. A laboratory 32 by 72 is devoted to the General 
Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis of the first year. An- 
other, 52 by 60, is arranged with special reference to the ex- 
perimental teaching of Metallurgy and other practical work 
of interest to dental students. 

Both laboratories are provided with individual cabinets, 
gas, water and equipment for a total of 225 students each, 
and each laboratory will accommodate 75 students at one 
time. 

In addition to the main laboratories there are large dis- 
pensing rooms, a balance room, well equipped with balances 
and apparatus for testing the physical properties of mictals, 
amalgams, etc., and a room 12 by 12 which is covered with 
a hood for carrying off fumes. In this are found the fur- 
naces employed in alloying, assaying and refining. 

The Professor's office and private laboratories are on the 
same floor with the main laboratories. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 47 

The course in Chemistry is designed to give instruction 
in the elements in the science, and at the same time be of 
such practical nature as to materially aid the student in 
other departments of study. 

First year : 

(a) General and Inorganic Chemistry. Lectures and 
quizzes ; two hours per week during the year. 

(b) Chemical Laboratory; three hours per week dur- 
ing year. This course includes such experimental 
work as is deemed necessary to illustrate and fix 
firmly in mind the elements of the science. Remsen's 
Chemistry, briefer course, is used, and the student is 
required to properly perform experiments and to keep 
neat and comprehensive notes on all work done. 

(c) The latter part of the first year is devoted to the 
study of the behavior of the metals before the blow 
pipe, and with reagents ; this serves as an intro- 
duction to Qualitative Analysis, which immediately 
follows ; the course in Qualitative Analysis ofifers 
abundant practice in the analysis of unknown mix- 
tures, particularly bases and alloys. 

Second year : 

(a) Practical problems in Dental Chemistry. Lecture 
and quiz, two hours per week during year. 

(b) Laboratory work, three hours per week during 
year; this course includes the refining of gold, silver 
and other metals, which are later employed in making 
dental alloy, gold and silver solder, amalgam-alloys, 
etc. Other practical problems include the making and 
study of cement, fusible metals, etc. Some practice in 
the assay of dental alloy for gold, silver, tin and cop- 
per is given. 

(c) Organic and Physiological Chemistry; lectures 
and demonstrations one hour per week during the 



^g i40RTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

year. These lectures cover the more important facts 
of interest to dental students and are designed to as- 
sist him in a better understanding of Materia Medica, 
Bacteriology and Physiology. They are illustrated as 
fully as possible with experiments on the lecture table 
and with a few chosen experiments in the laboratory. 
Before entering the Chemical Laboratory, each student 
is required to pay a fee to cover chemicals, breakage, 
etc. A part of this fee also covers text-books, printed 
lectures and notes used, which are furnished to the 
student at the office of the laboratory. Fee for the 
first year is $5, and for the second year $8. A strict 
account is kept of all material used, and if a student 
exceeds the limited amount he is required to pay the 
excess at the end of the term. 
Materia Medica will be studied in the Junior Year 
and will include : 

A study of definitions, abbreviations, and terminology 
used, the nature of disease, the source of drugs in nature, 
preparations made from crude drugs, methods of admin- 
istering medicines ; agencies that modify their action ; the 
art of prescribing, general classification of drugs ; their phy- 
sical, chemical and poisonous properties, dosage and anti- 
dotes, and therapeutic application. 

The action of various important drugs will be illustrated 
upon lower animals, and a special study of antiseptics will 
be undertaken. Special attention will be given to those 
drugs that are of most value in the practice of dentistry. 

Special Pathology and Therapeutics will be present- 
ed to the senior class in two lectures per week during the 
term. 

This course will include practice of antiseptic dentistry 

'and general considerations in the treatment of disease, hy- 

peraemia of the dental pulp, its causation, symptoms and 

treatment, inflammation of the dental pulp, suppuration, in- 



DENtAL SCHOOL 4.^ 

farction and death of the organ, with detailed description 
of treatment in different conditions and stages of disease, 
modes of destroying and removing the dental pulp, and the 
treatment and filling of foot canals. The treatment of teeth 
presented with pulps dead and decomposed, description 
and treatment of apical pericementitis and of the conditions 
leading to the formation of alveolar abscesses, with their 
symptomatology and the therapeutic management of this 
class of cases. The pathology, therapeutics and general 
management of alveolar abscess, both acute and chronic, 
the burrowing of pus among the muscles of the face and 
about the periosteum of the jaws, and kindred conditions. 

Diseases of the peridental membranes beginning at the 
gingival margin (so-called pyorrhea alveolaris) will receive 
close attention. The different forms presented by this im- 
portant group of diseases will be described in the lectures 
and illustrated by practical cases in the infirmary, and the 
treatment and general management of cases presenting the 
various characters, followed. The methods of bleaching dis- 
colored teeth will receive careful attention. 

The mitigation of pain in dental operations will re- 
ceive especial attention, and the various means employed 
fully developed and explained, and such directions given as 
will enable the student to avoid methods and drugs that may 
be hurtful or dangerous to patients. 

The infirmary clinic presents abundant illustrations of 
the various pathological conditions of the teeth and as- 
sociate parts for the practical study of these conditions and 
their management, so that the observant student may be- 
come practically familiar with them. 

The professor of Materia Medica will be in the infirmary 
clinic in personal teaching one-half day in each week, ex- 
plaining personally to students the meaning of various 
combinations of symptoms, pointing out and explaining the 



50 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

underlying pathological conditions, and directing students 
in the application of remedies to special cases. 

Experimental trial of drugs upon animals, illustrating 
their toxic effects, begun in the junior year, will be con- 
tinued and extended in the senior year, especially those in 
use as local obtundants, or that exhibit poisonous proper- 
ties that are in any wise dangerous to patients. 

Operative Dentistry. — The senior course in operative 
dentistry will be given in connection with the course in 
bacteriology. The didactic course will occupy two lec- 
tures per week for the greater part of the year. A 
recitation course will be conducted giving a brief re- 
view of the work done in the junior year, in the 
preparation of cavities and other manipulative procedures. 
The lecture course will be more essentially a study of dental 
caries, the conditions of susceptibility and immunity to 
caries, its modes of attack, the means of its prevention and 
the management of filling operations for the prevention of 
its recurrence; the conditions under which extension of 
cavities for the prevention of the recurrence of caries should 
or should not be undertaken, the use of temporary fillings, 
especially for children, and the conditions necessary for per- 
manent operations for children ; the reasons for special 
methods in different classes of cases, and the general adap- 
tation of operative procedures as curative and preventive 
measures, etc. It is intended that this shall be an advanced 
course in the general management of operative procedures, 
the foundation for which has been laid in the freshman and 
junior years. 

The Operative Infirmary Clinic is under the direct 
supervision of the Professor of Operative Dentistry. The 
student begins this work with the beginning of his junior 
year and continues it to the end of the senior year, the 
time given to it being much greater in the senior year. 
It is the intention that this infirmary practice be as 



DENTAL SCHOOL 51 

much like an actual dental practice as it is possible 
to make it. The development of the ability to obtam 
and hold a practice, or that professional comity be- 
tween an operator and his patients essential to per- 
sonal success, is regarded as parallel in its importance 
to the future of the student with the development of ma- 
nipulative ability. In order that they may begin at once 
that practice by which this ability is developed, students 
are urged to bring their friends and acquaintances to the 
infirmary as their individual patients. Such patients will 
always be assigned as requested and become the patients of 
the individual student, and collectively will constitute his 
individual infirmary practice. 

This practice, however, is, and must be, under the direc- 
tion of the demonstrators in all of its details, from the pri- 
mary examination upon the entrance of the patient to the 
clinic room to its completion. Of the many patients who 
come to the clinic room without individual preference as to 
operator, assignments will be made to the students who 
may need them for a beginning of their clinical practice or 
who may not have obtained a sufficient number. 

The Demonstrating Force will be assigned to sections 
of the clinic room, and by a system of rotation each student 
will successively come under the direction of each demon- 
strator. The number of demonstrators will be ample to 
give a large amount of personal attention to each individual 
student in his section, consulting with him, directing his 
operation in detail, and demonstrating points that may be 
new or difficult as they present themselves. This personal 
teaching is made a special feature of this school, and great 
attention is given by the management to the drill of the 
demonstrating force, in order that they may understand 
well their especial duties to the students and the methods of 
instruction adopted and maintained in the school, and that 
their direction and actions may be in harmony throughout 



52 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

their clinical teaching. To insure this harmony of action 
and of method the demonstrating force is brought together 
once per week throughout the course, much of the time 
twice per week, for instructions and special drill in teaching 
methods and their especial duties. 

In this great clinic, embracing several hundred patients 
per day, students have the opportunity to see and to study 
a wonderful variety of cases. They are made up of every 
variety of pathological condition, from the simplest devia- 
tion from the normal to the most grave conditions. A 
great variety of cases of irregularity of the teeth, impacted 
teeth, suppression of particular teeth, retention of decidu- 
ous teeth, atrophy of the teeth and of deformities of the teeth 
and of the jaws can be seen and studied. A careful observer 
will be able to see more of the pathological conditions of 
the teeth, deformities of the teeth, irregularities of the posi- 
tion, etc., in this great clinic than he would observe in many 
years of ordinary private practice. A practice of two years 
in such a clinic does more to fit a young man for the duties 
of the private practice of dentistry than many years of 
ordinary office observation could do. 

The System of Credits for experience gained in clinical 
practice is such as to give each student a fair statement of 
what he has done. Instead of counting this by the number 
of cavities filled, great and small, as has been the custom, 
the credits are awarded in points. The basis of the point 
is a small pit cavity in the occlusal surface of a molar, the 
easiest cavity to fill. In case of other and more difficult 
cavities the credit is given in a number of points propor- 
tionate to the difficulties of the individual case. Therefore, 
no matter what the difficulties of the case, or the time re- 
quired, the credits for experience gained will .be in due pro- 
portion to the effort required. Hence students undertake 
and do all classes of cases, simple or difficult, with equal 
zeal. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 53 

In clinical operative dentistry each student of the senior 
class will be required to present a written description in 
detail of the conditions of the patient and of teeth requir- 
ing operation, and of the operative procedures in the prep- 
aration and filling of four cavities, two gold and two amal- 
gam. Recent experience has shown this exercise to be a 
very important one to the advancement of the student. 

Summer Clinics. — The clinic rooms will be open all the 
year for the benefit of students who may wish to have 
greater experience in clinical practice under competent su- 
pervision. The number of demonstrators during the sum- 
mer will be ample for the class that may choose to remain 
with the school. The clinical material is abundant and a 
most excellent opportunity is afforded for clinical practice. 

Bacteriology will form an important part of the senior 
course. It will be presented especially in its relations to 
dental pathology and dental practice. The student will be 
familiarized with the general principles of the subject, with 
the nature of these growths, the place they occupy in nature, 
their physiological processes, how and where they grow, 
how they live, what they do, and how they produce disease. 
The dififerences between disease-producing and non-disease- 
producing organisms will be pointed out. 

The micro-organisms of the human mouth will receive 
especial attention. They will be collected from patients in 
the infirmary and from members of the class in the lecture 
room, thus pointing out their natural habitat and the ap- 
pearances produced by their natural growth. These will 
be cultivated in the various culture media, illustrating the 
growths as they appear to the naked eye in such ways as to 
illustrate the practical necessities of aseptic operating in 
dentistry, when and how dangers of infection arise, and 
how to avoid them. Species will be separated by plate cul- 
ture, and pure growths of varieties obtained directly from 
the mixed growths gathered from patients and students. 



54 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

The forms of growth as they appear to the naked eye on 
the various culture media will be studied in the lecture room 
and laboratory, and the microscopic characters of the or- 
ganisms, plans of staining, mounting, etc., will be studied 
in the laboratory. 

Orthodontia will be taught both didactically and clin- 
ically. The subject will be taken up systematically, pro- 
ceeding from the normal occlusion to explain the abnormal 
arrangements and faulty occlusion of the teeth and of the 
irregular forms of the dental arch. These derangements of 
alignment of the teeth and the malforms of the dental arch 
will be so classified as materially to assist the student in 
an understanding of them, and the means and mechanical 
arrangements of fixtures to bring the several classes of 
irregularities into normal form, or to the best possible form 
in individual cases in which the normal cannot be success- 
fully reached. 

In the clinical work there are often forty to fifty cases 
under observation and treatment at the same time, giving 
great opportunities for the study of clinical methods and 
their results. This demonstrative work will be contem- 
poraneous with the lecture work, and all of the aids at pres- 
ent developed in methods of teaching this subject will be 
in use as occasion demands. The newer features of X-ray 
pictures for the determination of the positions of teeth that 
from any cause have failed to erupt at the normal time, and 
for determining the positions and forms of roots of teeth 
that are abnormally placed, are being used, demonstrating 
the value of this rnethod of diagnosis in cases of special 
difficulty. 

Oral Surgery. — One lecture per week and a clinic of 
one and a half to two hours per week will be given dur- 
ing the term. The course will embrace instruction in 
the general principles of surgery and their practical 
application to pathological conditions occurring about 



DENTAL SCHOOL 55 

the mouth and face, giving especial attention to diag- 
nosis and recognition of conditions requiring surgical 
interference. It will include the extraction of teeth with 
special attention to the difficulties encountered in cases 
of malposed and impacted teeth, the surgical treatment 
of facial defects and blemishes, the surgical treatment of 
alveolar abscess, the treatment of caries and necrosis of 
bones, fractures of the jaws, including the various devices 
and methods of fixing and retaining fractured and displaced 
bones in position. The treatment of diseases of the Antrum 
of Highmore, the diagnosis and removal of tumors occurring 
about the mouth and face, the exsection of nerves in the sur- 
gical treatment of persistent neuralgias, etc. 

The whole clinical course will be an exemplification of 
aseptic and antiseptic surgery in its adaptation to, and uses 
in, the various phases of the surgical treatment of both 
accident and deliberate operative cases. 

Anaesthesia will be presented in detail in lectures, experi- 
mentally upon animals and in clinical illustration, embrac- 
ing all of the agents used for the mitigation of pain. Ni- 
trous oxide will be exhibited daily in the extracting clinic, 
and ether and chloroform in the surgical clinic. 

It is especially intended that this course of instruction 
shall embrace those conditions which the dentist is likely to 
meet in his practice, not omitting careful attention to the 
minor surgical operations which the dentist should ordi- 
narily do for his patients, while giving an excellent basis of 
instruction to those who may aspire to a practice in oral 
surgery in the future. ' 

Professional Ethics and Dental Jurisprudence will 
occupy one lecture per week during the first semester. It will 
consist of a brief statement of the more important principles 
of morals, followed by an exposition of the special duties and 
j moral obligations of professional men in respect to their 
patients, toward their fellow practitioners, and toward the 



36 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

public, for the upholding of the honor and dignity of the 
profession. The more important differences between the 
professions and businesses or manufacturing pursuits will 
be explained with reference to the ethical standards that 
are right and appropriate in each. The Professor and Fac- 
ulty earnestly desire that students understand and appre- 
ciate the high standard of moral quality and devotion to 
duty wdiich ought to characterize all professional men. 

The lectures on Jurisprudence will, in the main, follow 
the text-book by Dr. Rehfuss. It will include qualifications 
and duties of expert witnesses, the importance of dental 
records, etc., as a means of identification, the limitations of 
dental practice, the qualifications required, and the liabili- 
ties incurred by those who administer anaesthetics, the pen- 
alties that may be suffered, and the defense to be made in 
case of real or supposed malpractice, and the liability in 
case of infection from instruments ; the requirements of 
thp Illinois law and the laws of other states respecting the 
practice of dentistry, the steps necessary to become legal 
practitioners, the duties and liabilities of dentists with refer- 
ence to the law, etc. This course of lectures will be fol- 
lowed by an examination at the end of the first semester. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 57 

SUMMARY OF STUDIES. 

FIRST YEAR. 

Anatomy, two recitations or lectures per week during term. 

Anatomy, dissecting half of the median half of the human body. 

Physiology, to Nervous System, two lectures per week. 

Histology, one lecture per week. 

Histology, laboratory, two hours per week. 

Chemistry, lectures and laboratory, three hours per week. 

Operative Technics, three half days per week. 

Prosthetic Technics, three half days per week. 

Prosthetic Dentistry and Metallurgy, one lecture per week. 

Quiz and study hours. 

SECOND YEAR. 

Anatomy, two recitations or lectures per week during term. 

Anatomy, dissecting half of the median half of the human body. 

Comparative Dental Anatomy, one hour per week. 

Physiology, Nervous System, one lecture per week. 

General Materia Medica and Therapeutics, one lecture per week. 

Pathology, general, one lecture per week. 

Chemistry, lectures and laboratory, three hours per week. 

Histology, general and dental, one lecture per week. 

Histology, laboratory, two hours per week. 

Prosthetic Dentistry, one lecture per week. 

Operative Dentistry, two lectures per week. 

Prosthetic Dentistry, laboratory and infirmary practice. 

Operative Dentistry, technics and infirmary practice. 

Quiz and study hours. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Dental Pathology, two lectures per week. 

Oral Surgery, one lecture per week. 

Oral Surgery Clinics, two hours per week. 

Oral Surgery, quiz one hour per week. 

Orthodontia, one lecture per week. 

Orthodontia Clinics, three hours per week. 

Dental Jurisprudence and Ethics, about ten lectures. 

Prosthetic Dentistry, one lecture per week. 

Prosthetic Dentistry, laboratory and infirmary practice. 

Bacteriology, one lecture per week, first semester. 

Bacteriology, Laboratory, two hours per week. 

Operative Dentistry, two lectures per week. 

Operative Dentistry, Recitations, two hours per week. 

Operative Dentistry, infirmary practice. 

Quiz and study hours. 



38 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



TEXT BOOKS. 

FIRST YEAR. 

Anatomy — Gray. 

Dental Anatomy — Black. 

Technical Procedures in Filling Teeth — Black. 

Physiology — Kirkes. 

Chemistry — Hall, Remsen. 

Medical Dictionary — Duane, Gould, Thomas. 

SECOND YEAR. 

Anatomy — (Same as first year.) 

Technical Procedures in Filling Teeth — Black. 

Physiology — Kirkes. (Same as first year.) 

Materia Medicar—HsLVQ. 

Chemistry — Hall, Remsen. 

Comparative Anatomy — Thompson. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Technical Procedures in Filling Teeth — Black. 
Oral Surgery — Gilmer, Marshall. 
Orthodontia — Angle, Guilford, second edition. 
Special Materia Medica — Hare. 
Dental Jurisprudence — Rehfuss. 
Micro -Organisms — Abbott. 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

American System of Dentistry. 

Crown and Bridge Work — Evans. 

Diseases and Injury of the Teeth — Smale and Colyer. 

Principles of Surgery — Senn. 

The' American Text-Book of Prosthetic Dentistry — Essig. 

The American Text-Book of Operative Dentistry — Kirk. 

Micro-Organisms of the Human Mouth — Miller. 

Dental Pathology and Pharmacology — Burchard. 

Oral Surgery — Garretson. 

Long's Chemistry. 

Comparative Dental Anatomy — Tomes, Thompson. 

Regional Anatomy of the Head and Neck — Eckley. 

Anatomy — Morris, Eckley. 

Histology — Piersol. 



DENTAL SCHOOL . 55 

INSTRUMENTS. 

The instruments essential to the students in the several depart- 
ments of the school have been carefully studied and determined. 
Much care has been bestov^ed upon the selection of the instrument 
sets that the variety of forms may be sufficient for the student's 
needs without being excessive. Close study of this subject and long 
and careful observation of students and the progress they make in 
the attainment of manipulative skill show their progress to be so 
closely related to their instrument equipment that this school must 
demand that the instrument sets required be obtained by each stu- 
dent as a condition of his continuance in school work. 

It is found that a close adherence to the formula plan, in the 
study of cutting instruments particularly, is essential in teaching the 
important subject of cavity preparation; and this will be carried out 
critically in all departments of the school. This teaching is begun 
in the technic classes, and the same lines of instruction are followed 
progressively by teachers and demonstrators in all of the depart- 
ments to the end of the Senior year, the same instrument sets being 
used throughout the course of study. 

The instruments in the lists are required because they are essential 
to the student's progress, and students must provide them. Students 
should not bring with them, nor purchase, instruments of other pat- 
terns, for they cannot be received as equivalents of the required sets. 
They are the same as those required last year. No student is re- 
quired to make changes in his instrument sets during his three years' 
course. The instrument lists will be furnished on application. 

Written Quizzes and Examinations will be held by 
the various professors at intervals during the course, and 
especially at the end of the first semester. A few of these 
latter, especially in those lecture courses which terminate 
with the first semester, will be final examinations, and a few 
others will be final upon the subjects passed over. But, for 
the most part, they will take the form of written quizzes as 
an educational exercise and for determining the progress 
being made by the classes as a whole, and by the individual 
student. Past experience has shown that the written quiz 
is of great value to the student as a training in the forma- 
tion of his ideas and in pointing out the particular lines of 



6o NORtHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

his strength or weakness and guiding him in his further 
studies. 

The monthly reports of attendance, and the standing 
of pupils in quizzes, recitations, laboratory work and in 
infirmary practice, both operative and prosthetic, will be 
considered in making up the rating upon final examina- 
tions. 

The final examinations will be held at the close of the 
term. Those of the senior class will begin on April 13th 
and be completed on the i8th. Those of the junior and 
freshman classes will begin April 20th and be completed 
on April 28th. 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. 

A radical change has been made by dental scools in the 
methods of examination for admission. Formerly these 
examinations were made by the officers of the Dental School, 
but the Faculties' Association, at the Omaha meeting in 
1898, passed a rule requiring that these examinations be 
made by the legally constituted officers of instruction of the 
locality in which the applicant resides or by the State Super- 
tend ent of Instruction or deputy. 

Therefore students desiring to matriculate in this school 
must bring with them credentials signed by a County or 
City Superintendent of Schools, a Principal of a high school 
or the State Superintendent of Instruction. 

These credentials must show the applicant to have pro- 
gressed in his studies to the completion of the second year of 
the high school or its equivalent in order to entitle him to 
matriculate in this school for the term beginning in Octo^ 
ber, 1902. These credentials will not be required of appli- 
cants who present diplomas from high schools or colleges. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 6 1 



ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING. 

Students who present certificates of having taken courses 
in other recognized schools which cover subjects required 
in this school will be accredited with such studies if satis- 
factory to the professors in the respective departments. 
Graduates in medicine will be credited with one year's time. 

Students matriculating in this school, by doing so, agree 
to accept the discipline imposed by the faculty. There will 
be no return of fees by reason of suspension or expulsion. 



REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION. 

The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery is conferred on 
such students as complete the course of instruction, having 
attended three courses of lectures, the last of which must 
be in this school, and passed satisfactory examinations in all 
the subjects of stud^. To be admitted to the degree, the 
student must be twenty-one years of age, and possess a 
good moral character. He must have paid all fees in full. 

The monthly reports of the quizzes and the infirmary 
practice of the students will bear very materially upon their 
standing at all examinations. 

Notice. — Beginning with next year, or the session of 
1903-4, all of the Dental Schools of the Faculties' Association 
will require four years (of not less than seven months each) 
before graduation. 

G. V. Black, Dean, 



It is desirable that students should matriculate early, inasmuch 
as the order of assignment of seats is based upon the order of time 
in which they matriculate. 



62 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

EXPENSES. 
Fees are good until May ist, 1903. The fees are paya- 
ble in advance. 

FIRST YEAR. 

Matriculation Fee ?5oo 

General Ticket 100.00 

Histological Laboratory Ticket 5.00 

Dissecting Fee (i part) 10.00 

SECOND YEAR. 

Matriculation Fee $ 500 

General Ticket 100.00 

Histological Laboratory Ticket 5.00 

Dissecting Fee (i part) 10.00 

THIRD YEAR. 

Matriculation Fee $ 5.00 

General Ticket 100.00 

Final Examination Fee 20.00 

Where it is so desired, the tuition fee may be divided 

into two parts, but in such cases an additional fee of $5.00 

will be charged. Where the fee is so divided, $65.00 must 

be paid on or before the 20th day of October, 1902, and 

$60.00 must be paid on or before the 20th day of January, 

1903. 

These conditions cannot be modified except upon the 
written consent of the proper officials of the University. 

A fee of $5.00 for the first year and $8.00 for the second 
year must be deposited to cover chemicals and breakage in 
Chemical Laboratory. 

All remittances, cheques, money orders, etc., should be 
made to the order of Wm. E. Harper, Secretary. 

Good board and rooms convenient to the school can be 
obtained at prices varying from $3.50 to $5.00 a week, ac- 
cording to the accommodations ; also, vacant rooms, without 
board, furnished or unfurnished, can be obtained at from 
$6.00 to $10.00 per month. 

For further information and other literature relating to 
the Dental School, address, 

Dr. W. E. Harper, Secretary, 

Northwestern University Building, 
Cor. Lake and Dearborn Streets, 

Chicago, Illinois. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 63 

NOTICE. 

The Library, Museum and Reading Room of North- 
western University Dental School is maintained especially 
for the benefit of its students, but incidentally for the whole 
dental profession. It is the intention that they shall be 
open to any dentist who may wish to look up any point, 
read any article, find any literature not contained in his pri- 
vate library^ or to inspect any specimens in the Museum. 
Indeed, any member of the profession in good standing 
may have the use of this Library (under the ordinary library 
rules) by simply asking for an admission card. 

A Catalogue of the Library and Museum is now be- 
ing prepared for publication and will be issued soon, and may 
be had by any member of the profession upon application. 

To further the interests of this Library and Museum 
and render it more valuable to our students and the gen- 
eral profession, we ask donations of old books and maga- 
zines of every kind pertaining to dental subjects; (the older 
these are the more valuable to the Library) in order that we 
may render it more complete. There are many old books 
out of print, and which cannot be purchased, in the hands of 
dentists who do not especially care for them, that would be- 
come very valuable to this Library. 

Specimens of Abnormal Teeth of every kind are want- 
ed, every one of which will contribute to the completeness of 
this feature of the Museum. Many of these are lost every 
year, which, if sent to us, will be mounted, placed in the 
cases, properly labeled and classified, and become perma- 
nent additions of interest. 

It is the intention that this Library and Museum be 
continually growing, both by purchase and by contribu- 
tions, until it shall become the most complete store of re- 
corded knowledge of dental subjects in the country, and that 
the dental profession of the great Northwest shall have in 
it a common interest. 

All books and specimens donated to the Library or Mu- 
seum will bear the donor's name on the label. 



64 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 
SENIOR CLASS. 



Adams, Arthur Garfield, Neh. 

Allan, Maxwell Sedgwick, Au- 
stralia. 

Allison, Richard John, la. 

Baker, Josiah William, ///. 

Bales, Emmor S., la. 

Ballou, Louis L., Mich. 

Barber, Henry Edward, Tex. 

Bascombe, Clifford Henry, la. 

Baumgarth, Henry, Wis. 

Behm, John William, Mich. 

Bell, J. Rex, Neb. 

Berkey, Hugh Thomas, Ind, 

Bilek, Joseph Bartley, ///. 

Bixby, Raymond Lee, la. 

Bliss, Gertrude Richards, ///. 

Blount, Anna Bailey, III. 

Blumenthal, Edwin Martin, Wis. 

Bohrer, Ernest Everett, Mo. 

Bollenbach, George William, ///. 

Bolster, Vinton Vazey, Ohio. 

Bond, John Lafferty, Ind. 

Borchers, Frederick John Theo- 
dore, la. 

Boyd, Derward James, Ontario. 

Brandt, Carl Rudolph Max, la. 

Brant, Claude, Ind. 

Brown, James Scott, Minn. 

Burrill, Chester Leslie, Minn. 

Bouche, Louis Franklin, Man. 

Bushnell, Charles William, Wis. 

Caldwell, Wm. Elliott Hughes, 
W. Va. 

Callow, Joseph Edward, Wis. 

Campbell, Peter Alexander, Ont. 

Childs, Ralph Sherman, ///. 

Colborn, Lewis Paul, N, D, 

Constable, Roy Verner, Ohio. 

Copple, Plenna Reuben, Neh. 

Corbett, James Clinton, ///. 

Corbin, B. J., ///. 



Cory, William M., Mich. 
Cromb, John Rutherford, Minn. 
Davis, Charles Everett, Wis. 
Dorothy, Michael Joseph, ///. 
Dryden, James Mair, Ont. 
Dupuy, Thomas Mille, La. 
Eaton, Charles David, ///. 
Ellis, Arthur J., Cal. 
Ellis, William Harry, Minn. 
Engel, George Louis, ///. 
Fisher, Frank Edward, Ohio. 
Fleming, James Clinton, Wis. 
Foster, Charles Gelutiah, la. 
Fuller, Clark Anthony, Wis. 
Galligan, Thomas Francis, la. 
Geiger, Emil Daniel, ///. 
Gilchrist, Harry Alexander, Can. 
Gilchrist, Mont Rankin, Can. 
Gill, John Hunter, ///. 
Gordon, Howard E., Ind. 
Griffith, Edmund Llewellyn, ///. 
Goodman, George Oscar, 6'. D. 
Guerne, Alfred Augustus, Cal. 
Hadley, Chauncey Joseph, la. 
Haffa, Frank Arthur, la. 
Hall, T. Devereaux, Mo. 
Hammond, Roscoe Brant, Kan. 
Hancock, Herbert Harold, Wis. 
Hardie, John James, ///. 
Harris, Sara, Mont. 
Hayes, Ira Paul, Neh. 
Headley, Sidney, S. D. 
Hemphill, Wilbur J., la. 
Hess, John Edward Burt, Wis. 
Hicks, William Herbert, la. 
Himes, Jennie Eva, vS. D. 
Hodge, Hugh Wallace, Mo. 
Howell, Herbert Roosevelt, Mich. 
Hoxie, Charles Ray, la. 
Hullhorst, Lewis, Neh. 
Jennings, George C, Neh. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



65 



Jones, John Paul, ///. 
Johnson, Charles Emil, Minn. 
Kaser, Elmo Hiley, Ore, 
Keller, David H., ///. 
Kennedy, George Alexander, Out. 
Kenyon, Ronald Bush, ///. 
Kernan, Joseph Francis, Kan. 
Kitchen, Curtis John Burwell, 

Can. 
Kleinecke, Louis Christian, Tex. 
Landess, Eugene Shofner, Tenn. 
Lane, Albert Leslie, Ore, 
Laoker, Herman, ///. 
Lippert, Joseph Simon, ///. 
McAllister, Renaldo Eugene, ///. 
McCallum, Frederick William, 

Ind. 
McMaster, Glenn A., la. 
McStay, Earl Edward, la. 
McVay, Augustus Bently, ///. 
Macpherson, Egbert Earl, ///. 
Maginnis, Eugene, la. 
Malony, Wm. Henry, la. 
Matheson, George Angus, la. 
Maurer, Nellie Ethel, Neb. 
Michalski, Frank Alfonzo, Wis. 
Meyer, Frank Appelman, la. 
Miller, Lewis Mark, Neb. 
Minnis, Harry Lee, ///. 
Moody, George Roy, Ind. 
Mullican, Lorenza Alverado, Ind. 
Mueller, Frida Emilie, Germany. 
Munson, Robert Hoyle, la. 
Nelson, William, la. 
Niswander, Charles Harvey, la. 
O'Brien, John Denis, Minn. 
Opland, Joseph Segwardt, S. D. 
Parkinson, David Talbott, Kan. 
Parks, Pearl, ///. 
Parks, Robert Smith, ///. 
Piner, Henry Edward, la. 
Polin, Oscar Martin, Wis. 



Pollock, William Myers, Ore. 

Pool, Hardy Fayette, la. 

Poundstone, George Corwin, ///. 

Price, Frederick Orion, la. 

Proctor, William Orson, Mo. 

Reese, Elmo David, Wis. 

Reichert, Charles Scott, la. 

Richards, William Freeman, Cal. 

Ritson, Joseph Henry, Mich. 

Sanford, Charles Wesley, Wis. 

Shill, John Edward, Ind. 

Shless, Abe Lewis, ///. 

Silverberg, Henry M., ///. 

Sinn, Jens Johannes, la. 

Smith, Daniel Hallie, ///. 

Smith, George Hill, ///. 

Spencer, Edward Albert, Man. 

Speir, Ernest Arthur, Australia. 

Spindlo, Thomas Henwood, Eng- 
land. 

Stanley, William Raymond, Minn. 

Stevens, Wirt Allen, ///. 

Stokes, John Francis, ///. 

Swigert, George Orton, ///. 

Thomas, David Ellis, Wis. 

Thomas, Edward Smith, ///. 

Thomas, Lewis Edwin, ///. 

Thompson, Edwin Cook, ///. 

Tower, Ray Leighton, S. D. 

Tucker, Carl Allen, Ore. 

Tyler, Alva Duane, Mich. 

Uglow, Stanley John, Ont. 

Ulvestad, Oliver Martin, Minn. 

Vaughan, John Beverly, Mo. 

Waddell, William M., Utah. 

Weaver, Harold Townsend, Neb. 

Weir, William Arnold, Ont. 

Weyhe, Henry Theodore, Minn. 

Wilbur, Charles Oren, Wis. 

Wildermuth, Louis Frederick, 
Ind. 

Williams, Fred Hayes, Ind. 



66 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Williams, Leonard Alphonzo, ///. Zederbaiim, George, ///. 
Wolfe, Edwin Ferdinand, Wis. Ziegler, Horace Allen, ///. 
Zimniermann, Henry T., Minn. 

SPECIALS. 

Renius, Victor. 

STUDENTS WHO DID NOT FINISH THE COURSE. 

Bergman, Arthur Gustave. Kettles, F. 

Bogart, Mark David. Peterson, W. E. 

Fowler, Orel S. Southwick, W. R. 

Steinbaur, Charles Frederick. 

MATRICULATED BUT NOT IN ATTENDANCE. 

Bannister, Guy. Burnett, Isaac A. 

Barker, John Pierce. Dugan, J. C. 

Bjerke, Hans Kristian. McMillan, William Duncan. 

Burke, Wesley. Shumaker, Frank Mead. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 
Addison, Earl Stanley, 5. D. Christie, Herbert Franklin, Can. 

Bacon, Lee Ashley, ///. Church, Truman Tracy, S. D. 

Baker, Charles Reeder, ///. Churchill, Lester Frank, ///. 

Baker, John Ellsworth, Wis. Courtice, Andrew John, Can. 

Bane, Raymond Waldo, ///. Craig, William Pollock, Pa. 

Barber, Edward Sutherland, 5'. D. Crane, Edwin A., ///. 
Bartlett, Thomas Dell, ///. Currer, George Robert, la. 

Beaumont, Gulie Alexander, Tex. Cutler, Brenton Claude, Mich. 
Becker, Sebastian, ///. Dauterive, Albert Joseph, La. 

Belknap, Henry Wales, ///. Dewey, Herbert Chester, ///. 

Bergbom, George Nathaniel, ///. Dodge, Morton Stanley, Wis. 
Blackmore, Earl James, Mich. Dodge, Wilbert Jacob, Minn. 
Blaisdell, Edward Ward, Minn. Edgar, William, ///. 
Blake, William Earl, Ore. Ekstrom, Ernest Sune, Sweden. 

Bronson, Almon Edson, la. Fairfield, George Morton, ///. 

Brooks, W. W., ///. Fisher, Ambrose Terry, Mich. 

Brunner, Albert Henry, la. Fox, George Thomas, ///. 

Burbank, Glen Canary, Cal. Gottlieb, David Hart, Ore. 

Burgson, Clarence Edward, Mmw. Greeley, Harold Wilcox, ///. 
Calvert, Alvah Wort, Ind. Gregg, Edwin Stanton, ///. 

Carlene, Mrs. Helfrid, Sweden. Grinde, Seward Clarence, ///. 
Carlile, Walter W., Minn. Grove, George Carlton, ///. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



67 



Hamilton, Dillon, Kan. 
Harder, Louis Frank, Wis. 
Hart, Charles Simpson, ///. 
Hegge, Edward Nelson, Wis. 
Heller, Matthew, Kan. 
Heymar, Alfred, Poland. 
Hilbert, John Carton, Wis. 
Hoffer, Frederic Crider, Ohio. 
Hogan, Thomas Joseph, N. Y. 
Holmin, Oscar Serenus, ///. 
Hopper, Charles, ///. 
Huber, Charles Robert, la. 
Huff, Robert E., Mich. 
Hughes, Herbert Schluter, Tenn. 
Hughes, John Michael, Wis. 
Hutchinson, Leo Simplicous, la. 
Igney, Oscar Cornelius, ///. 
Ingersoll, Francis Byron, Ind. 
Jackson, George Raymond, ///. 
Janes, Charles Alonto, Wash. 
Keefe, George Paul, ///. 
Kessler, Warren J., Ind. 
Knapp, Lee Roy Allen, ///. 
Laffitte, Herman James, Wis. 
Lampe. Carl Henry, S. D. 
Land, John Adolph, Germany. 
Lawrence, Ivy Garfield, ///. 
Linaker, George Henry, Scotland. 
Lind, Adam, ///. 
Link, John J., la. 
Looze, John Battiste, Wis. 
McAvoy, Robert Chris., Can. 
McGaw, Andrew Ernest, N. D. 
McNinch, Joseph Scott, ///. 
Magee, Cecil James, Can. 
Mailer, Harry Orlandy, Minn. 
Marks, David Graham, ///. 
Mau, Otto Frederic, ///. 
Maxwell, Roscoe Conklin, Kan. 
Melde, Martin Thompson, Nor- 
way. 
Miller, James Madison, Mich. 



Miller, Julius John, la. 
Miller, Robert Tatham, ///. 
Mitchell, William Arthur, ///. 
Moore, Dwight Edwin, ///. 
Mullen, George Martin, Neb. 
Mullen, Joseph Henry, Okla. 
Mullen, William Henry, Neb. 
Murphy, Lloyd Lawrence, Minn. 
Nelson, John, ///. 
Norman, Mrs. Sarah C, ///. 
Normoyle, Dennis James, ///. 
Olson, Aaron Miles, ///. 
Packard, Gerald Jay, Neb. 
Packson, Ernest Shear, Kan. 
Patton, Murray Albert, Cal. 
Peters, William August, ///. ' 
Peterson, Arthur Clark, la. 
Phillips, Jesse W., Minn. 
Phillips, Warren Byron, Minn. 
Pierce, Loren George, la. 
Redmond, George Hamilton, Kan. 
Rhodes, Walter Louis, Tenn. 
Roberts, Rufus John, Wis. 
Richter, Jay J., Minn. 
Robertson, Arthur Hayes, Wis. 
Ross, Allie Glenn, ///. 
Ross, Herbert, Ont. 
Rothlisberger, George Bruce, 

Minn. 
Runner, Charles Frederick, ///. 
Salisbury, William James, ///. 
Sanberg, Frank Eber, Minn. 
Sauer, Andrew William, la. 
Schmidt, Oscar Charles, la. 
Schulz, Otto Henry, ///. 
Seymour, Charles Herbert, Ind. 
Shiels, Guy James, Wis. 
Shipstead, Henry S., Minn. 
Sloan, Frank Twiss, la. 
Smith, Austin Ora, ///. 
Smith, Charles Edward, ///. 
Smith, Edgar Wilson, ///. 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Smith, Perry Lee, ///. Walkow, Henry Emil, Wis. 

Stephens, John Murray, ///. Welker, John Jay, Ohio. 

Thayer, William John, ///. Welsh, Isabell B., la. 

Theile, Alvin A, la. Welsh, Stanley C, IVis. 
Thompson, Charles Henry, N. D. Wenncr, Alvah Leroy, ///. 

Tracy, Frank Waller, la. Wick, William Walter, ///. 
Trompen, Andrew Nichols, Mich. Woolson, Bert H., Minn. 

Waddell, James Clark, ///. Yeamans, Edwin Glenway, S. D. 

Wagoner, John Benjamin, ///. Young, Gerhart Henry, Wis. 

MATRICULATED BUT NOT IN ATTENDANCE. 

Dannatt, Ernest G., la. Lowe, James Osmer, ///. 

Davis, Robert L., Tenn. McElroy, Joseph Daniel, ///. 

Forrest, Elvira, ///. Porter, Mrs. Helen Kerns, ///. 

Kocher, William, ///. Yant, G. A., ///. 

FRESHMAN CLASS. 

Abbott, Florence Ethel, Mich. Cunningham, Clarence E., Wis. 

Arnold, Elisha Melvin, ///. Currier, Guy Raymond, Minn. 

Bachmann, Albert John A., ///. Davis, Guilford B., Okla. 

Beart, Leslie, ///. Dearborn, Helen Towle, la. 

Best, Walter Thomas, ///. Denning, Roy Joseph, Mich. 

Bartsch, Frederick George, ///. DuBois, Leon Leroy, la. 

Bay, George Phillips, ///. Dyblie, John Helmer, ///. 

Barney, Paul Wood, Minn. Devlin, William, N. D. 

Bohrer, John David, Mo. Emerson, Charles Milton, ///. 

Branstad, Henry Oswald, Wis. Fansett, Fred, A^. D. 

Bronson, Jessie Lyman, la. Ford, John Alexander, Can. 

Brosnihan, Fred H., ///. Fulton, Frederick Franklin, ///. 

Butler, Russell Harris, Ind. Galbreath, Merit E., Mich. 

Carlton, Robert Emmett, ///. Gale, Frank Willis, ///. 

Cecka, Joseph Ben., N. D. Gale, Mell Edwin, Neh. 

Chandler, Frank Wadsworth, Garrett, Edgar Raymond, Wis. 

Minn. Gaus, Julius John, ///. 

Chapline, William Edward, ///. Goggin, John William, Wis. 

Chandler, Edward Teneyck, ///. Gouse, Marcus Wesley, ///. 

Clark, Henry Bannister, vS'. D. Greenwood, Alexander S., ///. 

Clark, Irving A., Mich. Gray, William Joseph, ///. 

Close, Ralph Edward, ///. Grayston, Hayden Barton, Ind. 

Coffman, Ansel Victor, ///. Guest, Henry Quincy, ///. 

Collins, Joseph Hickman, ///. Hagerup, Myron Francis, Wis. 

Creeden, Timothy J., Minn. Hamilton. Baker Aaron, Can. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



69 



Harsch, Benjamin Theodore, ///. 
Harris, Bert Alfred, ///. 
Haviland, Holmes Weston, Kan. 
Heck, Eli George, ///. 
Heidel, Franklin Edward, Minn. 
Hesse, John Lewis, la. 
Hoag, Arthur Edwin, Wis. 
Holberg, Oscar H., Neb. 
Hooey, Leslie Ernest Arthur, 

Can. 
Hurd, Hugh Chester, Mich. 
Horn, Clarence, ///. 
Huff, Ralph Thomas, ///. 
Johnson, Albert Nelson, Wis. 
Jones, Roger Theodore, Wis. 
Juul, Axel, Minn. 
Kaiser, William, Pa. 
Kelly, John Joseph, ///. 
Kent, William, ///. 
Laign, Edward Arthur, ///. 
Lamm, Phil T., Mo. 
Leavitt, Mrs. May B., ///. 
Lehmann, Fred William, Wis. 
Laughlin, James Rowland, Ind. 
Lietzman, Charles Harmon, ///. 
Loofboro, Erlow Bliss, la. 
Low, Roy James, ///. 
Ludwig, Leon E., ///. 
Madison, George Addison, Minn 
Malcolm, John Lile, Can. 
Marr, Glenn DeMotte, Ind. 
Macdonald, Norman Arthur, ///. 
Malnight, Clyde Lyn, Mich. 
Mathews John Lewis, Wis. 
McClenahan, Frank Clifton, ///. 
McCowen, Eugene Percival, ///. 
McCumber, Clyde Isaiah, ///. 
Mclntire, James McAdam, Can. 
McKnight, Robert Franklin, ///. 
Medsker, Ora Lavertia, Ind. 
Miller, Jennie Louise, Kan. 
Miller, Orlen Jacob, Wis. 



Moe, William James, Wis. 

Mohan, Joseph Conness, la. 

Montieth, E. Belford, la. 

Moreau, Joseph, Mich. 

Myer, William Lindley, ///. 

Olsen, Frederick A. H., ///. 

Ostrander, Bunyan W., Mich. 

Paisley, James Thomas, ///. 

Phelps, Edgar Burns, Cat. 

Pierce, James Samuel, Neb. 

Pottle, Lovejoy, ///. 

Printz, Merle Mayo, ///. 

Prouty, Edward Aye, Wis. 

Rand, Thomas, Minn. 

Rasmussen, Alfred Theodore, 
Wis. 

Richardson, Robert George, A^. D. 

Rimmer, Walter Harcourt, ///. 

Robinson, William Joseph, la. 

Rossteuscher, Edwin Ralph, 6'. D. 

Samson, William Roy, la. 

Sauer, Julius Raymond, la. 

Schmuck, EmiJ Albert, Minn. 

Schofield, Herbert Shaw, ///. 

Schroeder, Margaretha Maria, 
Germany. 

Scholler, Daniel, Ind. 

Schwartz, Bernhardt Frederick, 
la. 

Selleck, Charles Herbert, ///. 

Slick, Albert B, ///. 

Sluss, Frank LeRoy, ///. 

Smith, Edgar Wilson, ///. 

Smith, James Perry, Mich. 

Sommerfield, Oscar Emel, Ger- 
many. 

Stalland, Martin Christian, Minn. 

Swartout, Benjamin, Minn. 

Thorpe, James William, ///. 

Thompson, George Patterson, 
Can. 

Thorson, William Julius, Neb. 



70 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Tildcn, Morton Cranage, ///. Wetterer, Frederick Jacob, ///. 

Timmins, Eldred Dufferin, N. D. Wharton, William F. Roscoe, 
Trerise, Walter Elbert, Mont. S. D. 

Van Deusen, Harry Morehouse, Whitney, Glen Burnard, Mich. 



Ill 
Van Sant, Ralph Newton, ///. 
Watson, Meredith, ///. 
Walker, Willie C, ///. 
Walton, Roy Page, Mich. 
Werner, Frederick Harold, Ind. 



Williams, Hugh, Wis. 
Willson, Clarke Mills, Minn. 
Willson, Ellis Oscar, N. D. 
Wiswall, Willard Jason, ///. 
Wood, Bertram Guy, ///. 
Wood, John Adam, N. D. 



Woodward, Oscar Hale, ///. 



MATRICULATED BUT 

Anderson, Arthur H., Minn. 
Baker, Charles Herbert, ///. 
Bernhardt, John, ///. 
Bernheisel, William Frank, Pa. 
Bever, Charles D., la. 
Blakely, Mrs. F. J., ///. 
Carter, William W., ///. 
Cole, Arthur L., ///. 
Conklin, Bishop Albert, ///. 
Connell, J. J., ///. 
Cook, Arie, Mich. 
Grapple, R. V., ///. 
Forssell, Frank H., Minn. 
Fritz, Frederic S., Mich. 
Gash, Harvey B., ///. 
Gray, Frank K., ///. 
Hagan, John, ///. 
Hayden, John C. E., ///. 
Hiltz, H. E., Nova Scotia. 
Johnson, Theodore, ///. 
Kirk, M. W., British Columbia. 
Kolkowski, Stanley Joseph, ///. 
Lakm, Jesse, ///. 

Tillinghast, 



NOT IN ATTENDANCE. 
Lynn, Arthur Ray, la. 
Marl<well, W. L., Ky. 
Melaik, N., ///. 
Montelius, George A., Minn. 
Mtillholland, Frederick Garfield, 

Nelson, Charles Albert, ///. 
Noble, Frank Jerome, Wis. 
Nunn, F. W., Ky. 
Parke, Fred, ///. 
Patton, Etta W., Neh. 
Pfister, Leon L., Wis. 
Powers, S. B., Wis. 
Prindle, Richard Hedenberg, ///. 
Rhodes, Walter Louis, Tenn. 
Rooke, R. S., ///. 
Schmitz, Matthew, ///. 
Shaw, J. E., Can. 
Sherer, A. H., Mich. 
Somerville, D. M. W., Can. 
Staga, August H., ///. 
Sweeney, Owen Charles, ///. 
Thompson, Harry, Wis. 
Carl, la. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



71 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

The Young Men's Christian Association of Northwest- 
ern University Dental School is an organization among 
the students of the school, the purpose of which is to do 
Christian work for students. You are invited to become 
acquainted with its work. In addition to meetings, Bible 
classes, and other religious work, it has made special ar- 
rangements to carry out the following : 

1. Information Bureau. — During the opening days of 
the school a number of upper class men will be at the office 
of the Dental School to meet all new students and help 
them in any way to get started on their year's work. 

2. Boarding House Lists. — Previous to the opening of 
the school a committee will have personally inspected a 
large number of suitable rooms and boarding places which 
they can recommend to students. This will greatly assist 
in getting comfortably located. 

3. Handbooks. — The Association has issued a leather- 
bound vest pocket handbook, containing useful information 
regarding the Dental School, the Y. M. C. A., and the city. 
These will be given to every student on application. A spe- 
cial edition for mailing has been gotten out and will be 
sent to any one addressing the president of the Association. 

4. New Students notifying us of the time and place of 
their arrival will be met at the station by one of our num- 
ber wearing the Y. M. C. A. badge. 

5. Correspondence. — Any further information regard- 
ing the Dental School, city or Association can be secured 
by writing to R. W. Cooke, care Y. M. C. A. 



72 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF NORTHWEST- 
ERN UNIVERSITY DENTAL SCHOOL. 

OFFICERS FOR 1902-1903. 

President, E. B. Jacobs, D.D.S., Stewart Building, Chicago. 

First Vice-President, F. W. Gethro, D.D.S., Marshall Field Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

Second Vice-President, Fred W. Parker, D.D.S., 813 W. Harrison 
Street, Chicago. 

Treasurer, J. Bradbury, D.D.S., 5860 State Street, Chicago. 

Secretary, G. B. Macfarlane, D.D.S., 70 State Street, Chicago. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. 
Elkin W. Fishel, D.D.S., 3448 Wabash Avenue, Chicago. 
J. W. Erringer, D.D.S., 47th Street and Calumet Avenue, Chicago. 
H. E. Macdonald, D.D.S., 47th and State Streets, Chicago. 

The object of this Association shall be to revive pleasant mem- 
ories and develop new pledges of brotherhood and friendship by 
meeting at intervals for social intercourse and mutual counsel. 

There will be a clinic held once a year, where the latest and best 
methods in dentistry will be presented to the members by competent 
clinicians. 

The next clinic will be held January 20, 1903, at Northwestern 
University Dental School, corner of Dearborn and Lake streets, 
Chicago, follow^ed by a collation in the evening. 

The annual meeting will be held at that time, and all members 
are requested to be present. 

Any graduate of Northwestern University Dental School may 
become a member upon payment of the membership fee of $1.00 and 
the annual dues of 50 cents. 

Any graduate of the University Dental College, or the American 
College of Dental Surgery, may become a member upon presentation 
of a certificate signed by the Dean and Secretary of Northwestern 
University Dental School, accompanied by the membership fee. 

All graduates of the School are urged to join this Association 
and share in the mutual benefits derived from the maintenance of 
fraternal intercourse, and that they may keep in touch with each 
other and with their Alma Mater. 

For any information address the secretary, 

Geo. B. Macfarlane, 
Room 406, 70 State Street, Chicago, 111 



The Academy of Northwestern University. 

To students pursuing studies preparatory to the Dental 
School, the Medical School or the School of Pharmacy, this 
Academy, located at Evanston, twelve miles from Chicago, 
offers peculiar advantages for special instruction in Physics, 
Botany, Chemistry, Manual Training, Mathematics, Civics, 
History, English Literature and Composition, and the Latin, 
German, French and Greek languages; Manual Training 
and the Sciences are taught in completely equipped labora- 
tories. 

For special circular address, 

Rev. Herbert F. Fisk, Principal, 

Evanston, Ills, 




• ' *1\ 






NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 
MEDICAL SCHOOL 

(Chicago Medical College) 

2431-2437 Des^rborn Street ChicaLgo. 111. 



This school was the pioneer in the enforcement of the 
standard of preliminary education, the adoption of longer 
annual courses, the grading of the curriculum. 

The buildings are new, the equipment complete, the 
cHnical material ample. The instruction is individual in lab- 
oratories and clinics. 

The following hospitals are affiliated: Mercy Hospital, 
500 beds; Wesley Hospital, 200 beds; St. Luke's Hospital, 
250 beds; Provident Hospital, 100 beds. Our dispensary 
treats over 26,000 patients annually. 

Students have clinical work in each year. 

Seniors have daily ward walks. 



For further information address the Secretary, 

DR. ARTHUR R. EDWARDS. 

2431 Dearborn Street. - - CHICAGO. ILL. 






The School of Pharmacy 

of 

Northwestern University 

Northwestern University Building, S. E. Corner of Lake 
and Dearborn Streets, Chicago 



The seventeenth year of this school begins Monday, Sep- 
tember 22d, 1902. 

It is the largest instution of its kind west of the Atlantic 
Coast States, and ih equipment and course of instruction are 
unsurpassed. 

The staff consists of eleven teachers and assistants. 

The classes in attendance in 1901-1902 came from twenty- 
four different states. The alumni now numbers 1279. 

New laboratories, furniture, fixtures and apparatus. For 
further information apply to the Dean of the school, 

Prof. OSCAR OLDBERG. 

2421 Dearborn Street. . . CHICAGO. ILL. 




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